Performance and Application of 16S rRNA Gene Cycle Sequencing for Routine Identification of Bacteria in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

Clinical Microbiology Reviews
Deirdre L ChurchStefan Emler

Abstract

This review provides a state-of-the-art description of the performance of Sanger cycle sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene for routine identification of bacteria in the clinical microbiology laboratory. A detailed description of the technology and current methodology is outlined with a major focus on proper data analyses and interpretation of sequences. The remainder of the article is focused on a comprehensive evaluation of the application of this method for identification of bacterial pathogens based on analyses of 16S multialignment sequences. In particular, the existing limitations of similarity within 16S for genus- and species-level differentiation of clinically relevant pathogens and the lack of sequence data currently available in public databases is highlighted. A multiyear experience is described of a large regional clinical microbiology service with direct 16S broad-range PCR followed by cycle sequencing for direct detection of pathogens in appropriate clinical samples. The ability of proteomics (matrix-assisted desorption ionization-time of flight) versus 16S sequencing for bacterial identification and genotyping is compared. Finally, the potential for whole-genome analysis by next-generation sequencing (NGS) to replace...Continue Reading

References

Dec 1, 1977·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·F SangerA R Coulson
Nov 1, 1979·Journal of Medical Microbiology·J G CruickshankC Shaldon
Mar 1, 1978·FEBS Letters·F Sanger, A R Coulson
Mar 6, 1975·Nature·C R WoeseD A Stahl
Jul 11, 1992·Lancet·Erik C BöttgerB Hirschel
Jan 11, 1992·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·G E FoxP Jurtshuk
Jan 1, 1992·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·M Aguirre, Matthew D Collins
Jan 1, 1992·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·Václav HájekM Kocur
Jul 30, 1992·The New England Journal of Medicine·David A RelmanS Falkow
Oct 1, 1992·FEMS Microbiology Letters·B BothErko Stackebrandt
Sep 1, 1991·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·J Michael JandaK Tamura
Jan 1, 1991·Journal of Bacteriology·W G WeisburgD J Lane
Jun 1, 1990·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·C R WoeseM L Wheelis
Oct 5, 1990·Journal of Molecular Biology·S F AltschulD J Lipman
Mar 1, 1990·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S Karlin, S F Altschul
Jul 1, 1990·Journal of Bacteriology·R DevereuxWilliam B Whitman
Aug 1, 1990·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·C Barreau, G Wagener
Oct 1, 1985·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·D J LaneN R Pace
Dec 1, 1988·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·R J WallaceJ M Smith
Apr 24, 1981·Science·H F Noller, C R Woese
Nov 15, 1994·FEMS Microbiology Letters·M Takeuchi, A Yokota
Jul 28, 1995·Science·R D FleischmannJ M Merrick
Oct 1, 1995·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·C PascualMatthew D Collins
Jun 1, 1995·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·A M CaliendoK L Ruoff
Jul 1, 1994·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·G Funke, A Carlotti
Feb 1, 1994·Journal of Bacteriology·B J PasterG J Fraser
Jul 1, 1997·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·G FosterMatthew D Collins
Feb 12, 1998·The Journal of Infection·A AvlamiT Kordossis
May 9, 1998·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Matthew D CollinsRichard R Facklam
Sep 17, 1998·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Matthew D CollinsRichard R Facklam
Feb 24, 1999·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·Matthew D CollinsRichard R Facklam
May 13, 1999·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·Lindsay SlyT B Beckenham
Jun 26, 1999·Science·W Ford Doolittle
Jun 29, 1999·Current Opinion in Microbiology·C P Kolbert, D H Persing
Nov 11, 1999·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·Cathrin SpröerErko Stackebrandt
Nov 11, 1999·International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology·Matthew D CollinsRichard R Facklam
Jun 8, 2000·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·J H Yoon, Y H Park
Jun 8, 2000·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·L HoylesMatthew D Collins
Aug 12, 2000·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·M UchinoKazuo Komagata
Aug 24, 2000·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·G M PupoP R Reeves
Oct 6, 2000·Journal of Microbiological Methods·B C MillarJ A Earle
Oct 18, 2000·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·C M O'HaraD J Brenner
Oct 18, 2000·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·J KimH U Han
Jan 9, 2001·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·J V Solnick, D B Schauer
Feb 7, 2001·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·P RenestoDidier Raoult
Apr 26, 2001·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Paul A LawsonMatthew D Collins
Jun 19, 2001·FEMS Microbiology Letters·P Houpikian, Didier Raoult
Aug 9, 2001·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·L HoylesMatthew D Collins
Feb 12, 2002·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Ingrid GrothErko Stackebrandt
Mar 19, 2002·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Lisa D RotzJames M Hughes
Mar 30, 2002·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Gregory J TyrrellMarguerite Lovgren
Mar 30, 2002·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Michel Drancourt, Didier Raoult
Apr 5, 2002·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·A I VelaJ F Fernández-Garayzábal
Aug 1, 2002·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Philipp P BosshardMartin Altwegg
Sep 14, 2002·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·M A SchwartzM B Coyle
Jan 2, 2003·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Irene von der WeidLucy Seldin
Apr 15, 2003·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Enrico Tortoli
Apr 24, 2003·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·S M L NiamutJ D M Gökemeijer
Jun 17, 2003·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Dong Xu, Jean-Charles Côté
Jun 26, 2003·Nucleic Acids Research·Ramu ChennaJulie D Thompson
Jul 18, 2003·Journal of Medical Microbiology·Kathryn A Harris, John W Hartley
Aug 2, 2003·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·J GoyacheJ F Fernández-Garayzábal
Aug 16, 2003·Environmental Microbiology·Tom Coenye, Peter Vandamme
Nov 11, 2003·Journal of Microbiological Methods·G C BakerD A Cowan
Dec 9, 2003·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Dariusz BartosikJadwiga Baj
Dec 23, 2003·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·H TronelPatrick A D Grimont
May 25, 2004·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·J-M RolainD Raoult
Nov 17, 2004·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Peter Vandamme, Tom Coenye
Jan 18, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Ludmila TvrzováReiner M Kroppenstedt
Jan 18, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Tom CoenyePeter Vandamme
Jan 18, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·B J TindallJean P Euzéby
Mar 8, 2005·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·G FunkeReinhard Frodl
Mar 19, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Georg ConradsEllie J C Goldstein
Apr 9, 2005·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Marilou CiantarDavid A Spratt
May 10, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Alvaro PeixEncarna Velázquez
Jul 2, 2005·Trends in Microbiology·Ottar N Bjørnstad, Eric T Harvill
Jul 8, 2005·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Paul A LawsonJohn W Hartley
Jul 8, 2005·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Julien LoubinouxAnne Bouvet
Jul 15, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Jeroen HeyrmanPaul De Vos
Sep 17, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Roman PantůcekVáclav Hájek
Sep 17, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Sonia ParadisMichel G Bergeron
Sep 17, 2005·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Bin ZhangXiuzhu Dong
Oct 19, 2005·The Journal of Infection·A ShettyP Groves
Jan 13, 2006·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Elisabeth M BikDavid A Relman
Apr 6, 2006·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Wen-Jun LiCheng-Lin Jiang
Oct 1, 1977·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·G E FoxC R Woese
Apr 15, 2006·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Barbara A Brown-ElliottRichard J Wallace
Apr 22, 2006·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Bozena M KorczakPeter Kuhnert
Apr 22, 2006·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Olga O GlazunovaVéronique Roux
Jun 2, 2006·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Wasu Pathom-AreeMichael Goodfellow
Jul 11, 2006·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Maria da Glória S CarvalhoRichard R Facklam
Jul 25, 2006·Journal of Microbiological Methods·S Mignard, J P Flandrois
Aug 8, 2006·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Tamara TuuminenTuija Kerttula
Aug 11, 2006·The British Journal of Ophthalmology·P GoldschmidtC Chaumeil
Aug 12, 2006·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Shanmugam MayilrajH S Saini
Oct 3, 2006·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Wasu Pathom-AreeMichael Goodfellow
Oct 26, 2006·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·Sonja Berensmeier
Oct 31, 2006·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Rebecca J CaseStaffan Kjelleberg
Jan 9, 2007·Systematic and Applied Microbiology·Pham Hong NhungTakayuki Ezaki
Jan 16, 2007·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Mohammad Monir ShahTakayuki Ezaki
Mar 17, 2007·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Cathy A Petti
Mar 21, 2007·American Journal of Clinical Pathology·Mona KapadiaXiang Y Han
Mar 30, 2007·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Paul A LawsonTerence R Whitehead
Jun 7, 2007·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Myung-Suk KangSung-Taik Lee
Jun 7, 2007·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·A I VelaJ F Fernández-Garayzábal
Jul 20, 2007·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Anne J BlaschkeKrow Ampofo
Jul 21, 2007·Systematic and Applied Microbiology·Makiko Yamada-NodaTakayuki Ezaki
Aug 10, 2007·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Hervé LécuyerIsabelle Podglajen
Aug 19, 2007·Microbial Cell Factories·Robert Lj GrahamGeoff McMullan
Aug 30, 2007·The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology·Akiko KageyamaSatoshi Omura
Oct 19, 2007·Nature·Peter J TurnbaughJeffrey I Gordon
Nov 6, 2007·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Jung-Hoon YoonTae-Kwang Oh
Nov 6, 2007·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Guoxia ZhangGuoping Sun
Dec 1, 2007·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Hang-Yeon WeonSoon-Wo Kwon
Jan 8, 2008·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Kim HeylenPaul De Vos
Jan 8, 2008·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Gabriel J MilinovichDarren J Trott
Jan 19, 2008·Biophysical Chemistry·Andrey V TataurovRichard Owczarzy
Feb 12, 2008·Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·Michael HandschurAlexander G Haslberger
Feb 26, 2008·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Jeremy A FrankGary J Olsen
Jul 9, 2008·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Kai InoueHiroki Kawabata
Jul 25, 2008·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Irene S MagesG Funke
Aug 5, 2008·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Sung-Lim ChoWonyong Kim
Aug 22, 2008·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Peter KutzerMarcel Nordhoff
Sep 5, 2008·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·An MartelPeter Vandamme
Sep 19, 2008·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Kathrina GneidingG Funke
Oct 3, 2008·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·Patrick C Y WooK-Y Yuen
Oct 10, 2008·Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease·O'Neil GreenJuan C Gea-Banacloche
Oct 11, 2008·Nature Biotechnology·Daniel BrantonJeffery A Schloss
Dec 3, 2008·Journal of Microbiological Methods·Sushama SontakkeEdward B Breitschwerdt
Dec 9, 2008·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Katrien De BruynePeter Vandamme
Jan 8, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Michael A CottaPaul A Lawson
Mar 31, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Andrew T SlackL Smythe
Mar 31, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Dennis TappeUlrich Vogel
Mar 31, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Myung Kyum Kim, Hee-Young Jung
Apr 2, 2009·Antonie van Leeuwenhoek·Yi-Guang ChenXiao-Long Cui
May 2, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Matthias A EhrmannRudi F Vogel
Jun 2, 2009·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Timothy F Murphy, G Iyer Parameswaran
Jun 9, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Shu-Kun TangWen-Jun Li
Jun 9, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Pavan Kumar PindiS Shivaji
Jun 17, 2009·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Robert P RyanJ Maxwell Dow
Jun 23, 2009·Systematic and Applied Microbiology·P KämpferPeter Schumann
Jul 2, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Véronique Roux, Didier Raoult
Jul 17, 2009·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Wiltrud Maria Kalka-MollPeter Vandamme
Jul 17, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Shams Tabrez KhanShin-ya Kazuo
Jul 22, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Mirko RossiPeter Vandamme
Jul 22, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Aurélie RenvoiseVéronique Roux
Jul 25, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Yong Bae SeoJae Hyung Lee
Aug 4, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Eun-Jin ParkJin-Woo Bae
Aug 6, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Ismet AraKatsuhiko Ando
Aug 8, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Eun-Jin ParkJin-Woo Bae
Aug 8, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Holger C ScholzBarun Kumar De
Aug 12, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Mouhamad Al MasalmaVéronique Roux
Aug 12, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·A GeigerG Cuny
Aug 18, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·P KämpferH-J Busse
Aug 28, 2009·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Alpin D MalkanStanley J Dudrick
Sep 8, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Geert HuysPeter Vandamme
Sep 8, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Sung-Lim ChoWonyong Kim
Sep 8, 2009·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Ying-Fei MaShuang-Jiang Liu
Oct 13, 2009·Genome Research·Jane PetersonMark Guyer
Oct 13, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Andrea Riesen, Vincent Perreten
Nov 3, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Olga O GlazunovaVéronique Roux
Nov 3, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Andréia B Estrela, Wolf-Rainer Abraham
Nov 10, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Sègla Wilfrid PadonouMogens Jakobsen
Nov 10, 2009·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Emmanuel JaffrèsXavier Dousset
Jan 15, 2010·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Guili ZhengSydney M Finegold
Jan 29, 2010·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Keun-Sung KimSydney M Finegold
Feb 6, 2010·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·T SpanuBrunella Posteraro
Feb 23, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·William J WolfgangKimberlee A Musser
Mar 2, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Hae-Min JungWan-Taek Im
Mar 17, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Ji-Hyun YunJin-Woo Bae
Mar 27, 2010·Journal of Medical Microbiology·Stefan JuretschkoStephanie H Stovall
Apr 20, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Masami MorotomiYohei Watanabe
Apr 27, 2010·Systematic and Applied Microbiology·Tomasz HauschildJolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska
May 13, 2010·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·D WernliS Harbarth
May 13, 2010·Antonie van Leeuwenhoek·Yi-Guang ChenYan-Qi Liu
May 21, 2010·Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases·Vincent CattoirPatrick Legrand
May 25, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Mark R H HurstTravis R Glare
May 26, 2010·The Journal of Infectious Diseases·María P Jiménez de BagüésAlessandra Occhialini
Jun 1, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Virginia MartínAntonio Maldonado-Barragán
Jun 15, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Liang WangWan-Taek Im
Jun 15, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Seong-Kyu ParkJin-Woo Bae
Jan 1, 2009·Methods in Molecular Biology·John T BelislePreston J Hill
Aug 3, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Yimin CaiMaki Kitahara
Aug 3, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·A I VelaJ F Fernández-Garayzábal
Aug 31, 2010·Anaerobe·O Martin WilliamsEllie J C Goldstein
Sep 14, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Lars GanzertDirk Wagner
Sep 17, 2010·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Lisa R McTaggartS X Zhang
Oct 13, 2010·Methods in Molecular Biology·Yvonne Wallis, Natalie Morrell
Oct 19, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Nurettin SahinAbdurrahman U Tamer
Nov 3, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Anna Murros-KontiainenJohanna Björkroth
Nov 16, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Na-Ri ShinJin-Woo Bae
Nov 16, 2010·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Arunachalam RuckmaniShanmugam Mayilraj
Dec 8, 2010·Future Microbiology·Piseth SengD Raoult
Dec 30, 2010·Journal of Visualized Experiments : JoVE·Philippe Desjardins, Deborah Conklin
Jan 11, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·A I VelaJ F Fernández-Garayzábal
Jan 15, 2011·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Luis Collado, Maria J Figueras
Jan 18, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology· ChittpurnaSuresh Korpole
Mar 29, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Xiang YuGejiao Wang
Apr 2, 2011·Peritoneal Dialysis International : Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis·Jeong Hwan ShinYeong Hoon Kim
Apr 7, 2011·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·G VernetK P Klugman
Apr 6, 2011·Bioinformation·Juliet NdukumSusmita Datta
Apr 9, 2011·Standards in Genomic Sciences·Sabine GronowHans-Peter Klenk
May 17, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Zhengfu ZhouWei Zhang
May 17, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Sathiyaraj SrinivasanMyungjin Lee
Jun 28, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Seung Hyeon LeeChe Ok Jeon
Aug 23, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Verena S J SchmidtSiegfried Scherer
Sep 3, 2011·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·E De CarolisG Fadda
Sep 22, 2011·Journal of Medical Case Reports·François LemaitreMichel Drancourt
Oct 7, 2011·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Silvana K RampiniErik C Böttger
Oct 12, 2011·Current Protocols in Molecular Biology·Barton E SlatkoFrederick M Ausubel
Nov 8, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Peter VandammeThierry De Baere
Nov 8, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Revti RaichandShanmugam Mayilraj
Dec 6, 2011·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Nurver Ulger-ToprakSydney M Finegold
Feb 22, 2012·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Christopher D SibleyDeirdre L Church
Mar 1, 2012·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·D P FedorkoP R Murray
Mar 24, 2012·Journal of Medical Microbiology·James S CargillJonathan A T Sandoe
Mar 30, 2012·Antonie van Leeuwenhoek·Jie LiWen-Jun Li
Apr 7, 2012·Genetics and Molecular Biology·Manuella Nóbrega DouradoWelington Luiz Araújo
Apr 17, 2012·Journal of Clinical Virology : the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology·Jens VerheyenHarald H Kessler
Apr 24, 2012·Nature Biotechnology·Nicholas J LomanMark J Pallen
May 1, 2012·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Seong-Kyu ParkJin-Woo Bae
Jun 9, 2012·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·W Michael DunneB Ford
Jul 17, 2012·Bioinformatics·Sebastian Gibb, Korbinian Strimmer
Jul 26, 2012·Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology·Lin LiuMaggie Law
Jul 28, 2012·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Kathryn Bernard
Aug 7, 2012·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Nicholas J LomanMark J Pallen
Aug 8, 2012·Nature Reviews. Genetics·Xavier DidelotDerrick Crook
Aug 28, 2012·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Isabel SnauwaertPeter Vandamme
Sep 18, 2012·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·L SmytheInternational Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes Subcommittee on the Taxonomy of Leptospiraceae
Oct 2, 2012·Journal of Microbiological Methods·Rosalee S HellbergWilliam B Martin
Oct 4, 2012·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Elizabeth Carmel Murphy, Inga-Maria Frick
Oct 12, 2012·Archives of Microbiology·Thomas ClavelDirk Haller
Nov 1, 2012·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Kei KitaharaKentaro Miyazaki
Nov 10, 2012·Nature Biotechnology·Jacqueline Z-M ChanChrystala Constantinidou
Nov 28, 2012·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Yi-sheng ChenFujitoshi Yanagida
Jan 8, 2013·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Moriyuki HamadaKen-ichiro Suzuki
Jan 15, 2013·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·François P DouillardWillem M de Vos
Feb 12, 2013·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Sei Joon OhJin-Woo Bae
Feb 15, 2013·Standards in Genomic Sciences·Ajay Kumar MishraPierre-Edouard Fournier
Feb 15, 2013·Standards in Genomic Sciences·Jean-Christophe LagierPierre-Edouard Fournier
Feb 26, 2013·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Brigid M DavisMatthew K Waldor
Apr 23, 2013·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·C Bertelli, Gilbert Greub
Apr 27, 2013·Pathogens and Disease·Shaan L Gellatly, Robert E W Hancock
Apr 30, 2013·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Moriyuki HamadaKen-ichiro Suzuki
May 8, 2013·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Andrew G McArthurGerard D Wright
May 22, 2013·PloS One·Stephen T ChambersInternational Collaboration on Endocarditis Prospective Cohort Study Investigators
May 28, 2013·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Zi-Jun XiongWen-Jun Li
Jun 19, 2013·Infection·A von Graevenitz, G Funke
Jul 10, 2013·Environmental Microbiology·Natalya Yutin, Michael Y Galperin
Jul 12, 2013·PloS One·Vladimir LazarevicJacques Schrenzel
Jul 19, 2013·The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology·Suwannee KhunthongpanAran H-Kittikun
Jul 23, 2013·Applied and Environmental Microbiology·Dong-Lei SunNing-Yi Zhou
Sep 12, 2013·APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, Et Immunologica Scandinavica·Arij MecherguiAssia Ben Hassen
Sep 12, 2013·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Yong TaoDaping Li
Sep 27, 2013·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Yi-sheng ChenFujitoshi Yanagida
Oct 25, 2013·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Matthijs OyaertEmmanuel De Laere
Nov 1, 2013·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·J KillerO Kofronová
Nov 26, 2013·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Ji-Young MoonSoo-Jin Kim
Nov 28, 2013·Nature Reviews. Genetics·W Florian Fricke, David A Rasko
Dec 29, 2013·The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy·Claudio U KöserSharon J Peacock
Dec 29, 2013·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Onya OpotaGuy Prod'hom
Jan 23, 2014·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Zen-ichiro KimuraSatoshi Okabe
Jan 24, 2014·Microbiome·Erin B Fichot, R Sean Norman
Feb 5, 2014·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Hyangmi KimKyung Sook Bae
Feb 18, 2014·Journal of Medical Case Reports·Chaoneng WuJunbo Ge
Mar 4, 2014·Systematic and Applied Microbiology·Seyed Abdollah MousaviKristina Lindström
Mar 14, 2014·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·T MeyerM Aepfelbacher
Mar 29, 2014·Genome Announcements·Lucio Vera-CabreraJorge Ocampo-Candiani
Apr 23, 2014·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Sandra ReuterNicholas R Thomson
Apr 29, 2014·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·R C Read
Apr 30, 2014·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·K BrownD Gregson
Jun 22, 2014·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Poornima RamananPritish K Tosh
Jul 1, 2014·Standards in Genomic Sciences·Tammi VesthDavid W Ussery
Jul 6, 2014·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Hélène PailhorièsMarie Kempf
Jul 6, 2014·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Masanori SaitoKazuko Takada
Jul 9, 2014·Mycopathologia·Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro
Aug 1, 2014·International Journal of Infectious Diseases : IJID : Official Publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases·Wafaa JamalVincent O Rotimi
Aug 5, 2014·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·James W CollinsGad Frankel
Aug 20, 2014·Infection·M I Fernández-NatalF Soriano
Sep 10, 2014·Frontiers in Oncology·Khalid Ahmed Al-Anazi, Asma M Al-Jasser
Sep 11, 2014·Molecular Biology Reports·Dharmendra Kumar Soni, Suresh Kumar Dubey
Sep 11, 2014·Balkan Medical Journal·Gülsüm İclal BayhanSengül Ozkan
Oct 3, 2014·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Christopher OrsborneEavan G Muldoon
Oct 4, 2014·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Blake W Buchan, Nathan A Ledeboer
Oct 10, 2014·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Mette Damkjær BartelsHenrik Westh
Oct 15, 2014·Genome Biology and Evolution·Marie TouchonEduardo P C Rocha
Oct 17, 2014·Methods in Molecular Biology·Michael G LorenzClaudia Disqué
Oct 29, 2014·Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy·Lisa R McTaggartSusan E Richardson
Oct 31, 2014·New Microbes and New Infections·N MahobiaY Kamat
Oct 31, 2014·New Microbes and New Infections·S KokchaJ-M Rolain
Nov 16, 2014·Nucleic Acids Research·Scott Federhen
Dec 17, 2014·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Lenka KrizovaAlexandr Nemec
Dec 17, 2014·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Leonor Sánchez-BusóFernando González-Candelas
Jan 27, 2015·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·P DixonA MacGowan
Mar 20, 2015·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Eija Könönen, William G Wade
Apr 3, 2015·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Oh Joo KweonMi-Kyung Lee
Apr 3, 2015·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Aurora MeucciGiorgio Giraffa
Apr 8, 2015·Journal of Biotechnology·Robson EeKok-Gan Chan
Apr 9, 2015·Frontiers in Microbiology·Vincenzina FuscoCharles M A P Franz
Apr 19, 2015·BMC Infectious Diseases·J Moran-GiladGlobal Microbial Identifier initiative’s Working Group 4 (GMI-WG4)
Apr 29, 2015·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·G TudóJ Gonzalez-Martin
Jun 6, 2015·Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy·Nobuhiro TakahashiKen Kikuchi
Jun 16, 2015·Frontiers in Microbiology·Margarita GomilaElena García-Valdés
Jun 25, 2015·BioMed Research International·María Concepción Mediavilla-GradolphBegoña Palop-Borrás
Jun 26, 2015·FEMS Microbiology Reviews·Alyssa M Walterson, John Stavrinides
Sep 2, 2015·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Tom A WilliamsT Martin Embley
Sep 12, 2015·International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology·Christiane Lourenço NogueiraSylvia Cardoso Leão
Oct 5, 2015·The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics : JMD·Martina I LefterovaBenjamin A Pinsky
Oct 17, 2015·Expert Review of Proteomics·Alex Van BelkumW Michael Dunne
Oct 24, 2015·Antonie van Leeuwenhoek·Yucheng Zhang, Sai Qiu
Nov 19, 2015·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·Lotte RomainRuimy Raymond
Nov 25, 2015·The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien Des Maladies Infectieuses Et De La Microbiologie Médicale·Huseyin BilginLutfiye Mulazimoglu
Dec 30, 2015·Veterinary Microbiology·Jarosław KrólMariola Paściak
Mar 18, 2016·Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B·Shao-hua HuDe-song Ming
Apr 14, 2016·BioTechniques·Jessica DaviesJames Hadfield
May 4, 2016·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Kenneth J Locey, Jay T Lennon
Jul 2, 2016·The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy·Philip T L C ClausenOle Lund
Aug 12, 2016·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Amy S GargisIra M Lubin
Sep 7, 2016·Expert Review of Proteomics·Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro
Sep 16, 2016·Curēus·Venkataramana KandiMohan Rao Bhoomagiri
Sep 20, 2016·BMC Infectious Diseases·Takehito KobayashiTetsuya Matsumoto
Sep 30, 2016·MBio·Jay T Lennon, Kenneth J Locey
Oct 12, 2016·Microbiology Spectrum·A Brian MochonMichael A Saubolle
Nov 1, 2016·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Erik Munson, Karen C Carroll
Nov 3, 2016·Cold Spring Harbor Protocols·Elaine Mardis, W Richard McCombie
Nov 4, 2016·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Maurizio Sanguinetti, Brunella Posteraro
Nov 29, 2016·Anaerobe·Terence R WhiteheadRichard W McLaughlin
Dec 9, 2016·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Betty A Forbes
Jan 4, 2017·Journal of Biotechnology·Ruud H DeurenbergJohn W A Rossen
Jan 6, 2017·New Microbes and New Infections·P TammaroH Mammeri
Jan 18, 2017·Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics·W Michael DunneAlex Van Belkum
Jan 21, 2017·Folia Microbiologica·Fatemeh Andalibi, Mehdi Fatahi-Bafghi
Jan 25, 2017·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·W-T FanB Gu
Feb 22, 2017·Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease·Nyambura MoremiStephen E Mshana
May 10, 2017·Open Forum Infectious Diseases·Elham RahmatiRosemary C She
May 12, 2017·APMIS : Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, Et Immunologica Scandinavica·Yong Kwan LimMi-Kyung Lee
May 16, 2017·Cell·François LebretonMichael S Gilmore
May 27, 2017·The Journal of Hospital Infection·Rami SommersteinBarbara Hasse
Jun 8, 2017·Clinical Microbiology Reviews·Tarah LynchGary Van Domselaar
Jun 28, 2017·The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal·Wasim Khasawneh, Dawood Yusef
Jun 29, 2017·Infection, Genetics and Evolution : Journal of Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics in Infectious Diseases·Seema Alnajar, Radhey S Gupta
Jul 14, 2017·New Microbes and New Infections·J A Sáez-NietoS Valdezate
Aug 24, 2017·New Microbes and New Infections·M BilenD Raoult
Sep 16, 2017·Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine·Feifan WuYongzheng Peng
Oct 3, 2017·Briefings in Bioinformatics·Kazutaka KatohKazunori D Yamada
Oct 28, 2017·Frontiers in Microbiology·Alberto OliveiraAlice R Wattam
Oct 31, 2017·Journal of Oral Microbiology·Emenike R K Eribe, Ingar Olsen
Nov 9, 2017·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·John W A RossenESCMID Study Group for Genomic and Molecular Diagnostics (ESGMD)
Nov 10, 2017·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Patricia S ConvilleAdrian M Zelazny
Nov 18, 2017·Microbial Pathogenesis·Mehdi Fatahi-Bafghi
Nov 24, 2017·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·Kamil PiwowarekIwona Ścibisz
Dec 8, 2017·Current Opinion in Microbiology·Mickael Orgeur, Roland Brosch
Jan 27, 2018·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Alejandra Ugarte-TorresDeirdre L Church
Feb 28, 2018·Microbiome·Stilianos LoucaLaura Wegener Parfrey
Feb 28, 2018·Virulence·Michael P Ryan, J Tony Pembroke
Mar 21, 2018·New Microbes and New Infections·S SafaeiOmid Pouresmaeil
Apr 6, 2018·IDCases·João TrêpaJosé Gabriel Saraiva da Cunha
May 16, 2018·Frontiers in Microbiology·Inwoo BaekJongsik Chun
Jun 23, 2018·Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases·M MarínBelén Rodríguez-Sánchez
Jul 17, 2018·Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy : Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy·Kiyoko TamaiKiyofumi Ohkusu
Aug 31, 2018·European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology·Mohadeseh Majidzadeh, Mehdi Fatahi-Bafghi
Sep 7, 2018·Frontiers in Microbiology·Imen NouiouiMarkus Göker
Dec 13, 2018·Frontiers in Microbiology·Daniela BritesSebastien Gagneux
Jan 4, 2019·Journal of Clinical Microbiology·Nicole Parrish

Related Concepts

Cell Differentiation Process
Epidemiology
Genes
Laboratory
Physicians
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Research
Microbiology Procedure
Evaluation
Microbiologist

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Femoral Neoplasms

Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Related Papers

Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Patrick C Y WooK-Y Yuen
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases : Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
W Michael DunneB Ford
Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
C Bertelli, Gilbert Greub
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved