Performance of urine cotinine and hypomethylation of AHRR and F2RL3 as biomarkers for smoking exposure in a population-based cohort

PloS One
Do-Hoon LeeEun Young Park


There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating an association between smoking and DNA methylation. Accordingly, DNA methylation is now considered a promising biomarker of smoking exposure. We evaluated the relationship between methylation markers (AHRR and F2RL3) and urine cotinine as well as self-reported smoking status. DNA methylation levels of AHRR and F2RL3 in blood as well as urine cotinine were measured in 330 adults (46 to 87 years of age). Pyrosequencing was performed to measure DNA methylation of AHRR and F2RL3 associated with smoking exposure. The lung cancer risk associated with DNA methylation and urine cotinine was analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The AHRR and F2RL3 genes were significantly hypomethylated in current smokers compared to in individuals who have never smoked. An inverse relationship was observed between urine cotinine and methylation levels. Methylation of AHRR and F2RL3 distinguished current smokers from never-smokers with high accuracy. Logistic multivariate analysis showed that AHRR methylation is significantly associated with the risk of lung cancer (OR = 0.96, P = 0.011). Our study validated the smoking-associated DNA methylation markers reported in a Korean population-based cohor...Continue Reading


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