Feb 10, 2020

Pericytes of the Nervous System: Physiological and Pathological Role

Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyū no shinpo
Fumitaka Shimizu, Takashi Kanda

Abstract

Pericytes stabilize microvessels by wrapping them with their processes. They are located within the neurovascular unit between endothelial cells, astrocytes, and neurons, and interact with neighboring cells to generate diverse functional responses that are critical for central nerve system (CNS) function in health and disease. Recent evidence suggests that brain pericytes play crucial roles in regulating microvascular functions, such as blood-brain barrier properties, capillary blood flow, angiogenesis, and the entry of leukocytes into the brain. Pericytes also take part in tissue repair after CNS injury and may have stem cell-like properties. In addition, recent reports suggest that peripheral nerve pericytes, forming the blood-nerve barrier (BNB), regulate BNB function and basement membrane maintenance. Microvascular dysfunction due to pericyte degeneration initiates secondary neurodegenerative changes in the nervous system. In this review, we will first describe the origin, heterogeneity, and the physiological characteristics of pericytes. We next review possible pathological mechanisms and consequences of pericyte impairment in nervous system diseases including Alzheimer's diseases, diabetes, vascular dementia, and stroke. ...Continue Reading

  • References
  • Citations

References

  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.
  • References
  • Citations

Citations

  • This paper may not have been cited yet.

Mentioned in this Paper

Permeability, Microvascular
Repair - Remedial Action
Pericytic Neoplasm
Diabetes
Neurodegenerative Disorders
Angiogenic Process
Blood - Brain Barrier Function
Nerve Injury
Endothelial Cells
Microvessels

Related Feeds

Blood Brain Barrier

The blood brain barrier is a border that separates blood from cerebrospinal fluid. Discover the latest search on this highly selective semipermeable membrane here.

Astrocytes

Astrocytes are glial cells that support the blood-brain barrier, facilitate neurotransmission, provide nutrients to neurons, and help repair damaged nervous tissues. Here is the latest research.

Blood Brain Barrier Chips

The blood brain barrier (BBB) is comprised of endothelial cells that regulate the influx and outflux of plasma concentrations. Lab-on-a-chip devices allow scientists to model diseases and mechanisms such as the passage of therapeutic antibodies across the BBB. Discover the latest research on BBB chips here.

Astrocytes and Neurodegeneration

Astrocytes are important for the health and function of the central nervous system. When these cells stop functioning properly, either through gain of function or loss of homeostatic controls, neurodegenerative diseases can occur. Here is the latest research on astrocytes and neurodegeneration.

Blood Brain Barrier Regulation in Health & Disease

The BBB is essential in regulating the movement of molecules and substances in and out of the brain. Disruption to the BBB and changes in permeability allows pathogens and inflammatory molecules to cross the barrier and may play a part in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research on BBB regulation in health and disease.

Astrocytes in Repair & Regeneration

Astrocytes are glial cells found within the CNS and are able to regenerate new neurons. They become activated during CNS injury and disease. The activation leads to the transcription of new genes and the repair and regeneration of neurons. Discover the latest research on astrocytes in repair and regeneration here.

Related Papers

Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Lachlan S BrownBrad A Sutherland
Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Tomoko Yamazaki, Yoh-Suke Mukouyama
Acta Neuropathologica
Turgay DalkaraMuge Yemisci
International Journal of Tissue Reactions
S Yamagishi, T Imaizumi
Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS
Mohammad Hossein GeranmayehMehdi Farhoudi
© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved