Perineural Pseudoinvasion: An Unusual Phenomenon in Nonmalignancies

Advances in Anatomic Pathology
Mansour MoghimiAmir Aryanfar


Perineural invasion (PNI) is characterized as tumoral or nontumoral cells invading in or around the nerves. The neural invasion is considered as a histopathologic characteristic for malignancy and is considered a mechanism for its spread. Both of these patterns usually portend a poor prognosis and very often are markers to prompt additional treatment. There are also some nonmalignancies representing PNI, including benign neoplasms, mimicking lesions, and disorders, such as chronic pancreatitis and endometriosis. The previously recommended terms are PNI, spread, or infiltration. To distinguish PNI in malignancies from that in nonmalignancies, we propose the term "perineural pseudoinvasion" to convey their nonmalignant behavior. Despite the low prevalence, awareness of this benign pseudoinvasion is necessary to avoid aggressive treatment and its misdiagnosis with malignancies. We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and Scopus databases up to December 2015 to find articles reporting PNI in nonmalignancies. After screening, 63 articles were identified as relevant. There were also 2 review articles discussing PNI in nonmalignancies. We aim to present an overview of the perineural pseudoinvasion and to discuss the previously publ...Continue Reading


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