Periocular granuloma annulare, nodular type. Occurrence in late middle age

Archives of Ophthalmology
M A BurnstineV M Elner


We describe the two oldest individuals with nodular granuloma annulare (pseudorheumatoid nodules) in the ophthalmologic literature and propose a unified classification scheme that recognizes pseudorheumatoid nodules to be granuloma annulare, nodular type. All lesions in both cases revealed so-called necrobiotic granulomas, characterized by an acellular central area containing mucin (hyaluronic acid) surrounded by palisading histiocytes (macrophages), diagnostic of granuloma annulare. These features are identical to those reported in the ophthalmologic and older general pathology literature as pseudorheumatoid nodules and the contemporary general and dermatologic pathology literature as granuloma annulare. We believe the diagnosis of nodular granuloma annulare should be employed for necrobiotic lesions displaying distinctive clinicopathologic features to unite the ophthalmologic, general, and dermatologic pathology literature. Granuloma annulare, nodular type, must also be considered in the differential diagnosis of ocular and periocular lesions at any age.


Apr 2, 2014·Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology·Sahana M SrinivasMadhavi Naik
Mar 22, 2006·Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery·Jonathan J Dutton, George K Escaravage
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Mar 13, 2003·Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica·Scott M GoldsteinJames A Katowitz
Nov 26, 1999·Pediatric Dermatology·J T Sandwich, L S Davis

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