Perioperative care of the infant with single ventricle physiology.

Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Vamsi V Yarlagadda, Melvin C Almodovar

Abstract

Among patients with congenital heart defects, neonates with single ventricle disease continue to challenge clinicians despite significant improvements in survival over the past 30 years. The cardiac anatomical variants associated with the term "single ventricle" are characterized by severe hypoplasia (or absence) of either ventricle, typically in association with obstruction or atresia of either the pulmonary or systemic outflow tracts. Physiologically, the single ventricle receives both pulmonary and systemic venous blood and ejects simultaneously into the pulmonary and systemic circulations, a pattern commonly referred to as single ventricle physiology. Medical and surgical management strategies, though palliative, are aimed at achieving the optimal balance of systemic blood flow and pulmonary blood flow to maximize oxygen delivery. Patients with single ventricle physiology have a greater risk of dying than those with biventricular circulations and are generally committed to multiple palliative interventions throughout childhood with considerable risk. Surgical intervention in the newborn period involves Norwood Stage I palliation, placement of a systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunt, or banding of the pulmonary artery, dependin...Continue Reading

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