Perioperative management of the thyrotoxic patient

Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Roy W Langley, Henry B Burch

Abstract

Preoperative thyrotoxicosis is a potentially life-threatening condition that requires medical intervention before surgery. Most patients are undergoing thyroidectomy for persistent thyrotoxicosis, usually Graves' disease, either having contraindications to or failing medical therapy. Fewer patients are undergoing nonthyroidal surgery that is likely urgent or emergent. The choice of treatment depends on the time available for preoperative preparation, the severity of the thyrotoxicosis, and the impact of any current or previous therapies. Generally treatment is directed at a combination of targets in the thyroid hormone synthetic, secretory, and peripheral pathway with concurrent treatment to correct any decompensation of normal homeostatic mechanisms. Thionamides are the preferred initial treatment unless contraindicated, but do require several weeks to render a patient euthyroid. beta-Blockers should always be used unless absolutely contraindicated because they improve thyrotoxic symptoms especially of the cardiovascular system. Other agents including iodine and steroids can be used if rapid preparation is required or more severe thyrotoxicosis is present. The goal of therapy is to render the patient as close as possible to cl...Continue Reading

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