The aromatic amino acid L-tyrosine is used as a dietary supplement and has promise as a valuable precursor compound for various industrial and pharmaceutical applications. In contrast to chemical production, biotechnological methods can produce L-tyrosine from biomass feedstocks under environmentally friendly and near carbon-free conditions. In this minireview, various strategies for synthesizing L-tyrosine by employing biocatalysts are discussed, including initial approaches as well as more recent advances. Whereas early attempts to engineer L-tyrosine-excreting microbes were based on auxotrophic and antimetabolite-resistant mutants, recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid technology and a vastly increasing knowledge of bacterial physiology allowed recently for more targeted genetic manipulations and strain improvements. As an alternative route, L-tyrosine can also be obtained from the conversion of phenol, pyruvate, and ammonia or phenol and serine in reactions catalyzed by the enzyme tyrosine phenol lyase.
Comparative studies on the properties of tryptophanase and tyrosine phenol-lyase immobilized directly on Sepharose or by use of Sepharose-bound pyridoxal 5'-phosphate
Improvement in microbial production of L-tyrosine by gene dosage effect of aroL gene encoding shikimate kinase
Purification and properties of bifunctional 3-deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthetase-chorismate mutase component A from Brevibacterium flavum
Arogenate (pretyrosine) is an obligatory intermediate of L-tyrosine biosynthesis: confirmation in a microbial mutant
Engineering of Escherichia coli central metabolism for aromatic metabolite production with near theoretical yield.
Biocatalytic syntheses of aromatics from D-glucose: renewable microbial sources of aromatic compounds
Cloning of the transketolase gene and the effect of its dosage on aromatic amino acid production in Corynebacterium glutamicum
Regulation of phenylalanine biosynthesis. Studies on the mechanism of phenylalanine binding and feedback inhibition in the Escherichia coli P-protein
Bacterial amino acid transport proteins: occurrence, functions, and significance for biotechnological applications
Enzymatic preparation of L-tyrosine or 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine from pyruvate, ammonia and phenol or pyrocatechol
Kinetics of incorporation of p-fluorophenylalanine by a mutant of Escherichia coli resistant to this analogue.
Stimulation, monitoring, and analysis of pathway dynamics by metabolic profiling in the aromatic amino acid pathway
Feedback inhibition of chorismate mutase/prephenate dehydrogenase (TyrA) of Escherichia coli: generation and characterization of tyrosine-insensitive mutants
Metabolic Engineering To Produce Tyrosine or Phenylalanine in a Tryptophan-Producing Corynebacterium glutamicum Strain.
A comparative study of the production of l-3:4-dihydroxyphenylalanine from tyrosine by tyrosinase from various sources
Production of p-hydroxycinnamic acid from glucose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli by expression of heterologous genes from plants and fungi.
Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial and biodegradability study of pseudo-poly(amino acid)s derived from N,N'-(pyromellitoyl)-bis-L-tyrosine dimethyl ester as a chiral bioactive diphenolic monomer
Synthesis of biodegradable chiral poly(ester-imide)s derived from valine-, leucine- and tyrosine-containing monomers
Chiral bio-nanocomposites based on thermally stable poly(amide-imide) having phenylalanine linkages and reactive organoclay containing tyrosine amino acid
A semi-quantitative high-throughput screening method for microbial L-tyrosine production in microtiter plates.
Determination of L-tyrosine based on luminescence quenching of Mn-doped ZnSe quantum dots in enzyme catalysis system.
Engineering of a tyrosol-producing pathway, utilizing simple sugar and the central metabolic tyrosine, in Escherichia coli
Rational, combinatorial, and genomic approaches for engineering L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli.
Aromatic amino acid auxotrophs constructed by recombinant marker exchange in Methylophilus methylotrophus AS1 cells expressing the aroP-encoded transporter of Escherichia coli.
Metabolic engineering of Escherichia coli for L-tyrosine production by expression of genes coding for the chorismate mutase domain of the native chorismate mutase-prephenate dehydratase and a cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase from Zymomonas mobilis.
Identification of the antibacterial compound produced by the marine epiphytic bacterium Pseudovibrio sp. D323 and related sponge-associated bacteria.
Three-step biocatalytic reaction using whole cells for efficient production of tyramine from keratin acid hydrolysis wastewater
Increased glycopeptide production after overexpression of shikimate pathway genes being part of the balhimycin biosynthetic gene cluster
Pterin-Dependent Mono-oxidation for the Microbial Synthesis of a Modified Monoterpene Indole Alkaloid
Crystallographic snapshots of tyrosine phenol-lyase show that substrate strain plays a role in C-C bond cleavage.
Optimization of process parameters for the production of tyrosine phenol lyase by Citrobacterfreundii MTCC 2424
Alleviation of feedback inhibition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae aromatic amino acid biosynthesis: quantification of metabolic impact
Combinatorial pathway analysis for improved L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli: identification of enzymatic bottlenecks by systematic gene overexpression
Simultaneous improvement of catalytic activity and thermal stability of tyrosine phenol-lyase by directed evolution
Precise tuning of the glyoxylate cycle in Escherichia coli for efficient tyrosine production from acetate
Pathway optimization by re-design of untranslated regions for L-tyrosine production in Escherichia coli
Efficient production of phenylpropionic acids by an amino-group-transformation biocatalytic cascade.
Efficient biocatalyst of L-DOPA with Escherichia coli expressing a tyrosine phenol-lyase mutant from Kluyvera intermedia.
Synthesis and characterization of L-tyrosine-conjugated quaternary ammonium salt chitosan and their cytocompatibility as a potential tissue engineering scaffold.
Metabolic engineering strategies for enhanced shikimate biosynthesis: current scenario and future developments
Selection of the optimal tyrosine hydroxylation enzyme for (S)-reticuline production in Escherichia coli.
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