pH plays a role in the mode of action of trimethoprim on Escherichia coli

PloS One
Haitham AlRabiahRoyston Goodacre

Abstract

Metabolomics-based approaches were applied to understand interactions of trimethoprim with Escherichia coli K-12 at sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC≈0.2, 0.03 and 0.003 mg L-1). Trimethoprim inhibits dihydrofolate reductase and thereby is an indirect inhibitor of nucleic acid synthesis. Due to the basicity of trimethoprim, two pH levels (5 and 7) were selected which mimicked healthy urine pH. This also allowed investigation of the effect on bacterial metabolism when trimethoprim exists in different ionization states. UHPLC-MS was employed to detect trimethoprim molecules inside the bacterial cell and this showed that at pH 7 more of the drug was recovered compared to pH 5; this correlated with classical growth curve measurements. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to establish recovery of reproducible phenotypes under all 8 conditions (3 drug levels and control in 2 pH levels) and GC-MS was used to generate global metabolic profiles. In addition to finding direct mode-of-action effects where nucleotides were decreased at pH 7 with increasing trimethoprim levels, off-target pH-related effects were observed for many amino acids. Additionally, stress-related effects were observed where the osmoprotectant trehalose was higher at...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Bacteriocidal Agents
Liquid Chromatography
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
Fungus Drug Sensitivity Tests
Mass Spectrometry
Trimpex
Escherichia coli K12
Alanine
Alcohol dehydrogenase

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