Pharmacodynamics of vancomycin and other antimicrobials in patients with Staphylococcus aureus lower respiratory tract infections

Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Pamela A Moise-BroderJerome J Schentag

Abstract

Vancomycin is commonly used to treat staphylococcal infections, but there has not been a definitive analysis of the pharmacokinetics of this antibacterial in relation to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that could be used to determine a target pharmacodynamic index for treatment optimisation. To clarify relationships between vancomycin dosage, serum concentration, MIC and antimicrobial activity by using data gathered from a therapeutic monitoring environment that observes failures in some cases. We investigated all patients with a Staphylococcus aureus lower respiratory tract infection at a 300-bed teaching hospital in the US during a 1-year period. Clinical and pharmacokinetic information was used to determine the following: (i) whether steady-state 24-hour area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC) values for vancomycin could be precisely calculated with a software program; (ii) whether the percentage of time vancomycin serum concentrations were above the MIC (%Time>MIC) was an important determinant of vancomycin response; (iii) whether the time to bacterial eradication differed as the AUC24/MIC value increased; (iv) whether the time to bacterial eradication for vancomycin differed co...Continue Reading

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