May 1, 1985

Pharmacology of spinal adrenergic systems which modulate spinal nociceptive processing

Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
T L Yaksh


Spinopetal pathways may be activated by a variety of brainstem manipulations including microinjections of morphine which are known to modulate spinal nociceptive processing. Based on the ability of these manipulations to release spinal noradrenalin; the ability to reverse the antinociceptive effects by intrathecal adrenergic antagonists and the fact that intrathecal injections of noradrenalin mimic the antinociceptive effect, it appears that the descending modulation may be mediated by descending noradrenergic systems. Examination of the spinal receptor systems with intrathecally administered agents indicates that spinal alpha, but not beta adrenergic receptor agonists produce a powerful analgesia as measured on a variety of reflex and operant measures in mouse, rat, cat, primate and man. On the basis of agonist and antagonist structure-activity relationships it appears that a significant effect can be produced in the absence of any detectable effect on motor function by the occupation of spinal alpha 2 receptors. Distinguishable alpha 1 receptors also appear "analgetically-coupled," but their effects are uniformly contaminated by signs of cutaneous hyperreflexia at doses required to produce analgesia. The ordering of potency w...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Biochemical Pathway
Entire Brainstem
Structure-Activity Relationship
Morphine Measurement
Drug Tolerance
Antagonist Muscle Action
Adrenergic Agonists
Absence of Pain Sensation
Adrenergic beta-Agonists

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.