Oct 1, 1975

Photoreceptor processes: some problems and perspectives

The Journal of Experimental Zoology


Visual photoreceptors from both vertebrates and invertebrates are characterized by extensive elaboration of membrane which contains visual pigment (rhodopsin). Visual pigments in all phyla examined are chemically similar: the chromophore is 11-cis retinaldehyde attached by an aldimine linkage (Schiff base) to a membrane protein, opsin. The effect of light is to isomerize the chromophore to the all-trans configuration. Beyond these fundamental similarities, several specific areas are discussed in which variations and differences appear. (1) Light causes vertebrate visual pigments to bleach, liberating the chromophore. Most invertebrate visual pigments do not bleach in the light, but instead form a thermally stable metarhodopsin, with the chromophore in the all-trans configuration still attached to the opsin. (2) In the disk membranes of vertebrate rod and cone outer segments, the rhodopsin molecules are oriented with their chromophores nearly coplanar with the disks. Within this plane, however, both rotational and translational diffusion are possible. In the microvillar membranes of arthropod and cephalopod rhabdoms, on the other hand, the situation is less clear. There is evidence for some preferential orientation of chromophor...Continue Reading

  • References65
  • Citations1


  • References65
  • Citations1

Mentioned in this Paper

Arachnida (invertebrate)
Resting Potentials
Light Adaptation

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

Head And Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinomas account for >90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma incidence has increased dramatically recently with little improvement in patient outcomes. Here is the latest research on this aggressive malignancy.

Signaling in Adult Neurogenesis

Neural stem cells play a critical role in the production of neuronal cells in neurogenesis is of great importance. Of interest is the role signalling mechanisms in adult neurogenesis. Discover the latest research on signalling in adult neurogenesis.

Psychiatric Chronotherapy

Psychiatric Chronotherapy considers the circadian rhythm as a major factor for optimizing therapeutic efficacy of psychiatric interventions. Discover the latest research on Psychiatric Chronotherapy here.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Related Papers

The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
T Y YamamotoH Watanabe
Journal of Supramolecular Structure
A SteinemannL Stryer
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
R M Eakin, J L Brandenburger
© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved