Sep 30, 2000

Physiological functions of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase

European Journal of Biochemistry
Elias S J Arnér, Arne Holmgren

Abstract

Thioredoxin, thioredoxin reductase and NADPH, the thioredoxin system, is ubiquitous from Archea to man. Thioredoxins, with a dithiol/disulfide active site (CGPC) are the major cellular protein disulfide reductases; they therefore also serve as electron donors for enzymes such as ribonucleotide reductases, thioredoxin peroxidases (peroxiredoxins) and methionine sulfoxide reductases. Glutaredoxins catalyze glutathione-disulfide oxidoreductions overlapping the functions of thioredoxins and using electrons from NADPH via glutathione reductase. Thioredoxin isoforms are present in most organisms and mitochondria have a separate thioredoxin system. Plants have chloroplast thioredoxins, which via ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase regulates photosynthetic enzymes by light. Thioredoxins are critical for redox regulation of protein function and signaling via thiol redox control. A growing number of transcription factors including NF-kappaB or the Ref-1-dependent AP1 require thioredoxin reduction for DNA binding. The cytosolic mammalian thioredoxin, lack of which is embryonically lethal, has numerous functions in defense against oxidative stress, control of growth and apoptosis, but is also secreted and has co-cytokine and chemokine activit...Continue Reading

  • References68
  • Citations1032

References

  • References68
  • Citations1032

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Glutaredoxin
Thioredoxin Reductase (NADPH)
Carboxy-Terminal Amino Acid
Enzymes, antithrombotic
Ribonucleotide Reductase
Thioredoxin-2
Selenite
Aurothioglucose
Peroxidases
Protein Function

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