Physiological impacts of elevated carbon dioxide and ocean acidification on fish

American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Rachael M Heuer, Martin Grosell

Abstract

Most fish studied to date efficiently compensate for a hypercapnic acid-base disturbance; however, many recent studies examining the effects of ocean acidification on fish have documented impacts at CO2 levels predicted to occur before the end of this century. Notable impacts on neurosensory and behavioral endpoints, otolith growth, mitochondrial function, and metabolic rate demonstrate an unexpected sensitivity to current-day and near-future CO2 levels. Most explanations for these effects seem to center on increases in Pco2 and HCO3- that occur in the body during pH compensation for acid-base balance; however, few studies have measured these parameters at environmentally relevant CO2 levels or directly related them to reported negative endpoints. This compensatory response is well documented, but noted variation in dynamic regulation of acid-base transport pathways across species, exposure levels, and exposure duration suggests that multiple strategies may be utilized to cope with hypercapnia. Understanding this regulation and changes in ion gradients in extracellular and intracellular compartments during CO2 exposure could provide a basis for predicting sensitivity and explaining interspecies variation. Based on analysis of t...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Biochemical Pathway
Evaluation of Acid-base Balance
Extracellular
Acclimatization
Protoplasm
Acidification - ActCode
Hypercapnia
Mitochondria
Structure of Otoconia
Metabolic Rate

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