Physiological responses in relation to performance during competition in elite synchronized swimmers

PloS One
L Rodríguez-ZamoraF A Rodríguez


We aimed to characterize the cardiovascular, lactate and perceived exertion responses in relation to performance during competition in junior and senior elite synchronized swimmers. 34 high level senior (21.4 ± 3.6 years) and junior (15.9 ± 1.0) synchronized swimmers were monitored while performing a total of 96 routines during an official national championship in the technical and free solo, duet and team competitive programs. Heart rate was continuously monitored. Peak blood lactate was obtained from serial capillary samples during recovery. Post-exercise rate of perceived exertion was assessed using the Borg CR-10 scale. Total competition scores were obtained from official records. Data collection was complete in 54 cases. Pre-exercise mean heart rate (beats·min(-1)) was 129.1 ± 13.1, and quickly increased during the exercise to attain mean peak values of 191.7 ± 8.7, with interspersed bradycardic events down to 88.8 ± 28.5. Mean peak blood lactate (mmol·L(-1)) was highest in the free solo (8.5 ± 1.8) and free duet (7.6 ± 1.8) and lowest at the free team (6.2 ± 1.9). Mean RPE (0-10+) was higher in juniors (7.8 ± 0.9) than in seniors (7.1 ± 1.4). Multivariate analysis revealed that heart rate before and minimum heart rate dur...Continue Reading


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