PMID: 591680Dec 1, 1977

Piecewise--planar representation of vowel formant frequencies

The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
D J Broad, H Wakita


The first three formant frequencies for 778 steady-state tokens of 30 nonretroflex vowel types uttered by a female speaker are found to lie close to a piecewise-planar surface (expressed numerically as 0.634F1 +0.603F2 -- 0.485F3 -- 366 = 0, for F2 greater than 0.027F1 +1692 and 0.686F1 -- 0.528F2 -- 0.501F3 +1569 = 0, otherwise). The rms distance of the vowels from this surface is only 86 Hz. The intersection between the two planes is a line of nearly constant F2, corresponding closely to the F2 of a uniform vocal tract of the same length as our speaker's. The piecewise-planar representation also suggests a way to test the hypotheses of uniform and nonuniform formant-frequency scaling between speakers.


Jul 8, 2010·Language and Cognitive Processes·Philip J Monahan, William J Idsardi
Apr 10, 2009·The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America·Richard E TurnerRoy D Patterson
Sep 28, 2010·Journal of Phonetics·Khalil Iskarous
Sep 11, 2007·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Randy L Diehl
Aug 7, 1998·Phonetica·S A FulopP Ladefoged

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