The pituitary gland represents the endocrine core of the body, and its hormonal output governs many key physiological processes. Because endocrine demands frequently change, the pituitary has to flexibly remodel its hormone-producing cell compartment. One mechanism of pituitary plasticity may rely on the generation of new hormonal cells from resident stem/progenitor cells. Existence of such 'master' cells in the pituitary has in the past repeatedly been postulated. Only recently, however, very plausible candidates have been identified that express stem cell-associated markers and signalling factors, and display the stem/progenitor cell characteristics of multipotency, efflux capacity (side population phenotype) and niche-like organization. In other adult tissues, stem cells recapitulate the embryonic developmental path on their course towards mature specialized cells. Interestingly, the pituitary stem/progenitor cell compartment shows prominent expression of transcriptional regulators and signalling factors that play a pivotal role during pituitary embryogenesis. This review summarizes the recent progress in pituitary stem/progenitor cell identification, highlights their potential embryonic phenotype, sketches a tentative stem/...Continue Reading
Evidence for bidirectional interconversion of mammotropes and somatotropes: rapid reversion of acidophilic cell types to pregestational proportions after weaning
Immunocytochemical localization of vimentin in stellate cells (folliculo-stellate cells) of the rat, cat and rabbit pituitary pars distalis
Localization of fibronectin in the folliculo-stellate cells of the rat anterior pituitary by the double bridge peroxidase-antiperoxidase method
Ultrastructural examination of the regeneration of the rat adenohypophysis after partial hypophysectomy
Pituitary lineage determination by the Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor defective in Ames dwarfism
The Ames dwarf gene, df, is required early in pituitary ontogeny for the extinction of Rpx transcription and initiation of lineage-specific cell proliferation
Anterior pituitary cell population control: basal cell turnover and the effects of adrenalectomy and dexamethasone treatment
Reversible transdifferentiation: interconversion of somatotrophs and lactotrophs in pituitary hyperplasia
Persistent Prop1 expression delays gonadotrope differentiation and enhances pituitary tumor susceptibility
The regulation of Notch signaling controls satellite cell activation and cell fate determination in postnatal myogenesis
HES-1 preserves purified hematopoietic stem cells ex vivo and accumulates side population cells in vivo.
Identification of a Wnt/Dvl/beta-Catenin --> Pitx2 pathway mediating cell-type-specific proliferation during development
Eya protein phosphatase activity regulates Six1-Dach-Eya transcriptional effects in mammalian organogenesis
Developmental regulation of Notch signaling genes in the embryonic pituitary: Prop1 deficiency affects Notch2 expression
Nestin-immunoreactive cells in rat pituitary are neither hormonal nor typical folliculo-stellate cells
The adult pituitary contains a cell population displaying stem/progenitor cell and early embryonic characteristics
Cellular and molecular signatures of muscle regeneration: current concepts and controversies in adult myogenesis
Identification of a primitive brain-derived neural stem cell population based on aldehyde dehydrogenase activity
Eya1 is required for lineage-specific differentiation, but not for cell survival in the zebrafish adenohypophysis
The proneural gene ascl1a is required for endocrine differentiation and cell survival in the zebrafish adenohypophysis
Molecular mechanisms of pituitary differentiation and regulation: implications for hormone deficiencies and hormone resistance syndromes
A role for angiotensin-converting enzyme in the characterization, enrichment, and proliferation potential of adult murine pituitary colony-forming cells
A population of non-luteinising hormone/non-adrenocorticotrophic hormone-positive cells in the male rat anterior pituitary responds mitotically to both gonadectomy and adrenalectomy
The notch signaling system is present in the postnatal pituitary: marked expression and regulatory activity in the newly discovered side population
Sustained Notch signaling in progenitors is required for sequential emergence of distinct cell lineages during organogenesis
Hes1 and Hes5 control the progenitor pool, intermediate lobe specification, and posterior lobe formation in the pituitary development
TCF4 deficiency expands ventral diencephalon signaling and increases induction of pituitary progenitors
Developmental disorders of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland associated with congenital hypopituitarism
SOX2-expressing progenitor cells generate all of the major cell types in the adult mouse pituitary gland
Basic science and clinical research advances in the pituitary transcription factors: Pit-1 and Prop-1
OTX2 loss of function mutation causes anophthalmia and combined pituitary hormone deficiency with a small anterior and ectopic posterior pituitary
Distinct developmental roles of cell cycle inhibitors p57Kip2 and p27Kip1 distinguish pituitary progenitor cell cycle exit from cell cycle reentry of differentiated cells
Transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal states: acquisition of malignant and stem cell traits
Characterization of adherens junction protein expression and localization in pituitary cell networks
Transcriptome analyses of mouse and human mammary cell subpopulations reveal multiple conserved genes and pathways
Nestin-Cre mice are affected by hypopituitarism, which is not due to significant activity of the transgene in the pituitary gland
Localization of Notch signaling molecules and their effect on cellular proliferation in adult rat pituitary
Characterization of a pituitary-tumor-derived cell line, TtT/GF, that expresses Hoechst efflux ABC transporter subfamily G2 and stem cell antigen 1
Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor-positive cells compose the putative stem/progenitor cell niches in the marginal cell layer and parenchyma of the rat anterior pituitary
Activated phenotype of the pituitary stem/progenitor cell compartment during the early-postnatal maturation phase of the gland
Regenerative capacity of the adult pituitary: multiple mechanisms of lactotrope restoration after transgenic ablation
Pituitary cell differentiation from stem cells and other cells: toward restorative therapy for hypopituitarism?
Concise Review: Paracrine Role of Stem Cells in Pituitary Tumors: A Focus on Adamantinomatous Craniopharyngioma
Paired-related homeodomain proteins Prx1 and Prx2 are expressed in embryonic pituitary stem/progenitor cells and may be involved in the early stage of pituitary differentiation
Significant quantitative and qualitative transition in pituitary stem / progenitor cells occurs during the postnatal development of the rat anterior pituitary
PRRX1- and PRRX2-positive mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells are involved in vasculogenesis during rat embryonic pituitary development
Expression of Krüppel-like factor 6, KLF6, in rat pituitary stem/progenitor cells and its regulation of the PRRX2 gene
Expression of the heparin-binding growth factor midkine and its receptor, Ptprz1, in adult rat pituitary
Localization of juxtacrine factor ephrin-B2 in pituitary stem/progenitor cell niches throughout life
Regulation of pituitary stem cells by epithelial to mesenchymal transition events and signaling pathways
Dopamine receptor type 2 (DRD2) and somatostatin receptor type 2 (SSTR2) agonists are effective in inhibiting proliferation of progenitor/stem-like cells isolated from nonfunctioning pituitary tumors
Hypothalamic sonic hedgehog is required for cell specification and proliferation of LHX3/LHX4 pituitary embryonic precursors
The adult pituitary shows stem/progenitor cell activation in response to injury and is capable of regeneration
Mechanisms involved in glucocorticoid induction of pituitary GH expression during embryonic development
Regeneration in the Pituitary After Cell-Ablation Injury: Time-Related Aspects and Molecular Analysis
Clump formation in mouse pituitary-derived non-endocrine cell line Tpit/F1 promotes differentiation into growth-hormone-producing cells
Control of the Anterior Pituitary Cell Lineage Regulator POU1F1 by the Stem Cell Determinant Musashi.
Control of the Anterior Pituitary Cell Lineage Regulator POU1F1 by the Stem Cell Determinant Musashi.
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