Sep 10, 1976

Plasma and brain amino acids in fulminant hepatic failure and their relationship to hepatic encephalopathy

European Journal of Clinical Investigation
C O RecordR Williams


Amino acid concentrations were determined in plasma, whole blood, cerebrospinal fluid and brain tissue of 45 patients with grade 3 or 4 coma due to fulminant hepatic failure. The concentration of 15 of the 19 amino acids determined were significantly increased in blood and the increases were greatest for the amino acids concerned with neurotransmitter metabolism. There was no correlation, however, between the plasma concentration of these amino acids and changes in the grade of hepatic coma. The plasma concentrations of the branched chain amino acids were normal except in those patients who subsequently recovered in whom levels were slightly decreased. Phenylalanine- tyrosine and methionine were among the 15 out of 18 amino acids which were significantly increased in cerebrospinal fluid and among the 15 out of 21 amino acids which were significantly increased in the brain. The increase in tryptophan was associated with a significant elevation in brain 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentration suggesting an increase in 5-hydroxytryptamine turnover in hepatic coma. Brain to plasma ratios of most amino acids in hepatic coma patients were similar to control subjects suggesting that plasma concentration is the main factor controlling...Continue Reading

  • References19
  • Citations144


Mentioned in this Paper

Hepatic Encephalopathy
Liver Failure, Acute
Fulminant Hepatic Failure With Cerebral Edema

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.