Neural interfacing nerve fascicles along the splenic neurovascular plexus (SNVP) is needed to better understand the spleen physiology, and for selective neuromodulation of this major organ. However, their small size and anatomical location have proven to be a significant challenge. Here, we use a reduced liquid crystalline graphene oxide (rGO) fiber coated with platinum (Pt) as a super-flexible suture-like electrode to interface multiple SNVP. The Pt-rGO fibers work as a handover knot electrodes over the small SNVP, allowing sensitive recording from four splenic nerve terminal branches (SN 1-4), to uncover differential activity and axon composition among them. Here, the asymmetric defasciculation of the SN branches is revealed by electron microscopy, and the functional compartmentalization in spleen innervation is evidenced in response to hypoxia and pharmacological modulation of mean arterial pressure. We demonstrate that electrical stimulation of cervical and sub-diaphragmatic vagus nerve (VN), evokes activity in a subset of SN terminal branches, providing evidence for a direct VN control over the spleen. This notion is supported by adenoviral tract-tracing of SN branches, revealing an unconventional direct brain-spleen proje...Continue Reading
Physiology and morphology of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus and the nucleus of the solitary tract that are sensitive to distension of the small intestine
Substance P innervation of spleen in rats: nerve fibers associate with lymphocytes and macrophages in specific compartments of the spleen
Neuropeptide Y-, substance P- and VIP-immunoreactive nerves in cat spleen in relation to autonomic vascular and volume control
Noradrenergic sympathetic innervation of the spleen: III. Development of innervation in the rat spleen
Acetylcholinesterase staining and choline acetyltransferase activity in the young adult rat spleen: lack of evidence for cholinergic innervation
Neuroanatomical evidence demonstrating the existence of the vagal anti-inflammatory reflex in the intestine
Neural regulation of inflammation: no neural connection from the vagus to splenic sympathetic neurons
Vagus nerve stimulation inhibits cytokine production and attenuates disease severity in rheumatoid arthritis
Apical splenic nerve electrical stimulation discloses an anti-inflammatory pathway relying on adrenergic and nicotinic receptors in myeloid cells
Specific vagus nerve stimulation parameters alter serum cytokine levels in the absence of inflammation.
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.