Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase as a key player in excitotoxicity and post-ischemic brain damage

Toxicology Letters
E MeliF Moroni

Abstract

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) are a group of protein-modifying and nucleotide-polymerizing enzymes able to catalyze the transfer of multiple ADP-ribose units from NAD to substrate proteins. In the human genome, 16 different genes encoding for members of this emerging family of enzymes have been identified. Known family members are PARP-1, PARP-2, PARP-3, vPARP, tankyrase 1 and tankyrase 2, each of them with a possible specific role in cell biology. The most studied member of the family is PARP-1, which is abundantly present in the nucleus and is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. In pathological conditions, highly reactive radical species may cause DNA damage and PARP-1 hyperactivation. This may lead to necrotic cell death through massive NAD consumption. We show that following middle cerebral artery occlusion, rats treated with PARP inhibitors displayed reduced brain infarct volumes. Similarly, PARP inhibitors reduced neuronal death induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) or excitotoxins in primary cultures of murine cortical cells. On the contrary, PARP inhibitors did not attenuate the OGD-induced selective loss of CA1 pyramidal cells in rat organotypic hippocampal slices. In addition, they were not ...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase Inhibitors
Metazoa
Brain Hypoxia
Brain Ischemia
Enzyme Inhibitors
Neurons
Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases
Cell Death
Mouse, Swiss
In Vitro [Publication Type]

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