Polycomb Group Proteins (PcG) are a family of epigenetic regulators responsible for the repression of an array of genes important in development and cell fate specification. PcG proteins complex to form two types of epigenetic regulators: Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2). Although the mechanisms regulating PRC2 recruitment and activity in mammals remain poorly understood, recent work has identified a non-canonical PRC2 in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC) with unique activities required for repression of PRC2 target genes and necessary for mESC differentiation and somatic cell reprogramming. Here we review the functions of PRC2 in embryonic stem cells and explore the role of the newly identified mESC specific PRC2 regulatory subunits Jarid2 (jumonji, AT rich interactive domain 2), Mtf2 (metal response element binding transcription factor 2) and esPRC2p48.
The core of the polycomb repressive complex is compositionally and functionally conserved in flies and humans.
Drosophila enhancer of Zeste/ESC complexes have a histone H3 methyltransferase activity that marks chromosomal Polycomb sites
Histone methyltransferase activity associated with a human multiprotein complex containing the Enhancer of Zeste protein
Molecular basis for the discrimination of repressive methyl-lysine marks in histone H3 by Polycomb and HP1 chromodomains
Polycomb group proteins Ring1A/B link ubiquitylation of histone H2A to heritable gene silencing and X inactivation
Analysis of a polycomb group protein defines regions that link repressive activity on nucleosomal templates to in vivo function
Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors
Ring1-mediated ubiquitination of H2A restrains poised RNA polymerase II at bivalent genes in mouse ES cells
Prediction and testing of novel transcriptional networks regulating embryonic stem cell self-renewal and commitment
Whole-genome mapping of histone H3 Lys4 and 27 trimethylations reveals distinct genomic compartments in human embryonic stem cells
Whole-genome analysis of histone H3 lysine 4 and lysine 27 methylation in human embryonic stem cells
Ubiquitin E3 ligase Ring1b/Rnf2 of polycomb repressive complex 1 contributes to stable maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cells
EZH1 mediates methylation on histone H3 lysine 27 and complements EZH2 in maintaining stem cell identity and executing pluripotency
The long and the short of it: RNA-directed chromatin asymmetry in mammalian X-chromosome inactivation
Recruitment of polycomb group complexes and their role in the dynamic regulation of cell fate choice
Jarid2/Jumonji coordinates control of PRC2 enzymatic activity and target gene occupancy in pluripotent cells
Polycomb-like 2 associates with PRC2 and regulates transcriptional networks during mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal and differentiation
Ring1B compacts chromatin structure and represses gene expression independent of histone ubiquitination
Jarid2 is a PRC2 component in embryonic stem cells required for multi-lineage differentiation and recruitment of PRC1 and RNA Polymerase II to developmental regulators
Short RNAs are transcribed from repressed polycomb target genes and interact with polycomb repressive complex-2
ESCs require PRC2 to direct the successful reprogramming of differentiated cells toward pluripotency
Cell type of origin influences the molecular and functional properties of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells
Molecular pathways of early CD105-positive erythroid cells as compared with CD34-positive common precursor cells by flow cytometric cell-sorting and gene expression profiling
Transcriptome characterization by RNA-seq unravels the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells
Cell-type-specific predictive network yields novel insights into mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal and cell fate
Novel candidate genes for alcoholism--transcriptomic analysis of prefrontal medial cortex, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens of Warsaw alcohol-preferring and non-preferring rats
The histone H3K27 methylation mark regulates intestinal epithelial cell density-dependent proliferation and the inflammatory response
Conservation and diversification of polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) proteins in the green lineage
Telomere dysfunction cooperates with epigenetic alterations to impair murine embryonic stem cell fate commitment.
Evolution and conservation of polycomb repressive complex 1 core components and putative associated factors in the green lineage
Cell Fate Specification
Cell fate specification is determined by complex signal transduction pathways including Notch and the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway. Here is the latest research on regulation of cell fate determination.