Apr 23, 2010

Polyglutamine diseases: where does toxicity come from? what is toxicity? where are we going?

Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
Toshiaki TakahashiOsamu Onodera

Abstract

Although the genetic basis of polyglutamine diseases has been recognized for 20 years, their molecular basis is still unclear. We have no therapeutic strategies for these intractable neurodegenerative disorders. To adequately treat patients, we must clarify the molecular basis of polyglutamine diseases. Three main issues address their molecular pathogenesis: whether the specific structure of expanded polyglutamine diseases results in cellular toxicity; what type of dysfunction causes them; and how the toxic structure causes dysfunction, that is, the link between structure and dysfunction. For structures, expanded polyglutamine proteins undergo transformation from monomers to oligomers and inclusions. One can hypothesize that one of these structures might cause the polyglutamine disease. Although the expanded polyglutamine protein is toxic, it does not explain the selective vulnerability of specific neurons in each polyglutamine disease. The normal function of each protein, including protein-protein interaction and modification, might also be crucial for pathogenesis. For dysfunction, various molecular mechanisms have been proposed, including dysregulation of transcription, impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, mitochon...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Pathogenic Aspects
Proteasome Pathway
Axonal Transport
Pathogenesis
Polyglutamine
Ubiquitin
Protoplasm
Neurons
Degenerative Diseases, Spinal Cord
Neurodegenerative Disorders Pathway

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