Intrapartum electronic fetal monitoring (EFM) is used for most women who give birth in the United States. As such, clinicians are faced daily with the management of fetal heart rate (FHR) tracings. The purpose of this document is to provide obstetric care providers with a framework for evaluation and management of intrapartum EFM patterns based on the new three-tiered categorization.
Response times for emergency cesarean delivery: use of simulation drills to assess and improve obstetric team performance
In vitro myometrial contractility profiles of different pharmacological agents used for induction of labor
Monitoring fetal electrocortical activity during labour for predicting worsening acidemia: a prospective study in the ovine fetus near term
The clinical interpretation and significance of electronic fetal heart rate patterns 2 h before delivery: an institutional observational study
Mechanism of reduction of newborn metabolic acidemia following application of a rule-based 5-category color-coded fetal heart rate management framework
Planning a collaborative conference to provide interdisciplinary education with a focus on patient safety in obstetrics
Are we (mis)guided by current guidelines on intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring? Case for a more physiological approach to interpretation
Intermittent Auscultation for Intrapartum Fetal Heart Rate Surveillance: American College of Nurse-Midwives
Short-term neonatal outcome in diabetic versus non-diabetic pregnancies complicated by non-reassuring foetal heart rate tracings
Intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring: evaluation of a standardized system of interpretation for prediction of metabolic acidosis at delivery and neonatal neurological morbidity
The 5-tier system of assessing fetal heart rate tracings is superior to the 3-tier system in identifying fetal acidemia
Why the term neonatal encephalopathy should be preferred over neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy
Assessment of the concordance among 2-tier, 3-tier, and 5-tier fetal heart rate classification systems
Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring and its relationship to neonatal and infant mortality in the United States
Training residents to be factually accurate and articulate: A case study using foetal heart rate monitoring nomenclature
Interobserver agreement in CTG interpretation using the 2015 FIGO guidelines for intrapartum fetal monitoring
Decision-to-delivery interval in pregnant women with intrapartum non-reassuring fetal heart rate patterns
Practice variation in the management of intrapartum fetal distress in The Netherlands and the Western world
Predictors for prolonged interval from premature rupture of membranes to spontaneous onset of labor at term
Recognition and response to electronic fetal heart rate patterns: impact on newborn outcomes and primary cesarean delivery rate in women undergoing induction of labor
Vaginal Dinoprostone Versus Intravenous Oxytocin for Labor Induction in Patients Not Responsive to a First Dose of Dinoprostone: A Randomized Prospective Study
Parasympathetic tone variations according to umbilical cord pH at birth: a computerized fetal heart rate variability analysis
Association between fetal myocardial performance index and fetal heart rate monitoring: a prospective observational cohort study
Misoprostol With Foley Bulb Compared With Misoprostol Alone for Cervical Ripening: A Randomized Controlled Trial
What is the effect of intertwin delivery interval on the outcome of the second twin delivered vaginally?
Cardiotocography and beyond: a review of one-dimensional Doppler ultrasound application in fetal monitoring
Intervention for fetal distress among obstetricians, registered nurses, and residents: similarities, differences, and determining factors
The recognition and management of intrapartum fetal heart rate emergencies: beyond definitions and classification
Delivery and feto-neonatal outcomes of diamniotic twin pregnancies in women with no chronic disease or gestational complications: impact of mode of conception
New-onset ulcerative colitis in pregnancy associated to toxic megacolon and sudden fetal decompensation: Case report and literature review
Perinatal outcome in women with prolonged premature rupture of membranes at term undergoing labor induction
Ultrasound in labor admission to predict need for emergency cesarean section: a prospective, blinded cohort study
Early sinusoidal heart rate patterns and heart rate variability to assess hypoxia-ischaemia in near-term fetal sheep
Marked variability in intrapartum electronic fetal heart rate patterns: association with neonatal morbidity and abnormal arterial cord gas
Evaluation of 3-tier and 5-tier FHR pattern classifications using umbilical blood pH and base excess at delivery
Birth asphyxia following delayed recognition and response to abnormal labour progress and fetal distress in a 31-year-old multiparous Malawian woman
Clinical effectiveness of position management and manual rotation of the fetal position with a U-shaped birth stool for vaginal delivery of a fetus in a persistent occiput posterior position
Intrapartum and neonatal outcome of screening non-stress test (NST) compared with no screening NST in healthy women at 40-40 (+6) weeks of gestation
A Comprehensive Evaluation of the Predictive Abilities of Fetal Electrocardiogram-Derived Parameters during Labor in Newborn Acidemia: Our Institutional Experience
Association Between Fetal Middle Cerebral Artery and Umbilical Artery Doppler Ratio with Fetal Distress in 38-40 Weeks of Gestation
Do we need a 200 μg misoprostol vaginal insert? A retrospective cohort study comparing the misoprostol vaginal insert to oral misoprostol
Maternal oxygen exposure may not change umbilical cord venous partial pressure of oxygen: non-random, paired venous and arterial samples from a randomised controlled trial
The effect of maternal low flow oxygen administration during the second stage of labour on umbilical cord artery pH: a randomised controlled trial
Unrecognized maternal heart rate artefact in cases of perinatal mortality reported to the United States Food and Drug Administration from 2009 to 2019: a critical patient safety issue
Prolonged Fetal Heart Rate Decelerations in Labor: Can We Reduce Unplanned Primary Cesarean Sections in This Group?
Interventions for Intrauterine Resuscitation in Suspected Fetal Distress During Term Labor: A Systematic Review
Effect of Oxygen vs Room Air on Intrauterine Fetal Resuscitation: A Randomized Noninferiority Clinical Trial
Neonatal and maternal outcomes of pregnancies with a fetal diagnosis of congenital heart disease using a standardized delivery room management protocol
Intrauterine resuscitation during the second stage of term labour by maternal hyperoxygenation versus conventional care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (INTEREST O2)
Gestational weight gain and foetal acidosis in vaginal and caesarean deliveries: The Japan Environment and Children's Study
A randomized controlled trial studying the effect of maternal hyperoxygenation on fetal heart rate in suspected fetal distress
Cardiotocography signal abnormality classification using time-frequency features and Ensemble Cost-sensitive SVM classifier.
Dietary Inflammatory Index during Pregnancy and the Risk of Intrapartum Fetal Asphyxia: The Japan Environment and Children's Study
Maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index and foetal acidosis in vaginal and caesarean deliveries: The Japan Environment and Children's Study.
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