Zoonotic introduction of novel coronaviruses may encounter preexisting immunity in humans. Using diverse assays for antibodies recognizing SARS-CoV-2 proteins, we detected preexisting humoral immunity. SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (S)-reactive antibodies were detectable using a flow cytometry-based method in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected individuals and were particularly prevalent in children and adolescents. They were predominantly of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class and targeted the S2 subunit. By contrast, SARS-CoV-2 infection induced higher titers of SARS-CoV-2 S-reactive IgG antibodies targeting both the S1 and S2 subunits, and concomitant IgM and IgA antibodies, lasting throughout the observation period. SARS-CoV-2-uninfected donor sera exhibited specific neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-2 S pseudotypes. Distinguishing preexisting and de novo immunity will be critical for our understanding of susceptibility to and the natural course of SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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Seasonal human coronavirus antibodies are boosted upon SARS-CoV-2 infection but not associated with protection.
Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies Within IVIg Preparations: Cross-Reactivities With Seasonal Coronaviruses, Natural Autoimmunity, and Therapeutic Implications.
Spike S2 Subunit: The Dark Horse in the Race for Prophylactic and Therapeutic Interventions against SARS-CoV-2.
Multiplexed Serum Antibody Screening Platform Using Virus Extracts from Endemic Coronaviridae and SARS-CoV-2.
Current Status of COVID-19 Vaccine Development: Focusing on Antigen Design and Clinical Trials on Later Stages.
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