For many years pregnancy has been contraindicated in patients with SLE, particularly when kidney involvement was present. Today, pregnancy is no longer considered impossible in women with lupus. Yet, lupus pregnancies are still considered high-risk. The prognosis has considerably improved for pregnant women but the fetal risk, although progressively reduced, is still higher in pregnancies of patients with SLE than in pregnancies of healthy women. Miscarriage, premature delivery, and preeclampsia, as well as heart problems in the baby are the major complications that can occur. In this paper we will review the outcome of pregnant women with SLE, the influence of lupus on fetal outcome, the effects of pregnancy on lupus, and the management of pregnant lupus patients based on our personal experience and the revision of the most recent and significant papers on the subject.
Bidirectional cytokine interactions in the maternal-fetal relationship: is successful pregnancy a TH2 phenomenon?
Increased rate of lupus flare during pregnancy and the puerperium: a prospective study of 78 pregnancies
Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis
Spectrum and progression of conduction abnormalities in infants born to mothers with anti-SSA/Ro-SSB/La antibodies
Clinical predictors of fetal and maternal outcome in systemic lupus erythematosus: a prospective study of 103 pregnancies
Safety of hydroxychloroquine in pregnant patients with connective tissue diseases: a study of one hundred thirty-three cases compared with a control group
Hydroxychloroquine directly reduces the binding of antiphospholipid antibody-beta2-glycoprotein I complexes to phospholipid bilayers
Reviewing the evidence for mycophenolate mofetil as a new teratogen: case report and review of the literature
Successful management of systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis flare-up during pregnancy with tacrolimus
A systematic review and meta-analysis of pregnancy outcomes in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis
The clinical utility of measuring complement and anti-dsDNA antibodies during pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
Risk factors for pregnancy failure in patients with anti-phospholipid syndrome treated with conventional therapies: a multicentre, case-control study
Teratogenicity of mycophenolate confirmed in a prospective study of the European Network of Teratology Information Services
Maternal use of hydroxychloroquine is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent anti-SSA/Ro-antibody-associated cardiac manifestations of neonatal lupus
Is there an embryopathy associated with first-trimester exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists? A critical review of the evidence
Flares of systemic lupus erythematosus during pregnancy and the puerperium: prevention, diagnosis and management
Pregnancy outcomes among women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a retrospective cohort study from Thailand
Safety and Efficacy of in Vitro Fertilization in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Antiphospholipid Syndrome
Clinical outcomes and predictors of maternal and fetal complications in pregnancies of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
Mediation of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Autoimmune Conditions by Pregnancy Complications: A Mediation Analysis of Autoimmune Conditions and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes.
Implications of Probiotics on the Maternal-Neonatal Interface: Gut Microbiota, Immunomodulation, and Autoimmunity
Prepregnancy Endocrine, Autoimmune Disorders and the Risks of Gestational Hypertension-Preeclampsia in Primiparas: A Nationwide Population-Based Study in Taiwan
Reaching a consensus on research priorities for supporting women with autoimmune rheumatic diseases during pre-conception, pregnancy and early parenting: A Nominal Group Technique exercise with lay and professional stakeholders
Contraception in chronic kidney disease: a best practice position statement by the Kidney and Pregnancy Group of the Italian Society of Nephrology
A preeclampsia risk prediction model for Chinese pregnant patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
Incidence and prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus among Korean women in childbearing years: A nationwide population-based study.
The presence of lupus nephritis additionally increases the risk of preeclampsia among pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus.
Lupus Low Disease Activity State Achievement Is Important for Reducing Adverse Outcomes in Pregnant Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.
Cardiomegaly, known as an enlarged heart, is a multifactorial disease with different pathophysiological mechanisms. Hypertension, pregnancy, exercise-induced and idiopathic causes are some mechanisms of cardiomegaly. Discover the latest research of cardiomegaly here.