Premonitory symptoms preceding metastatic medullary thyroid cancer in MEN 2B: An exploratory analysis

Surgery
Michael BrauckhoffH Dralle

Abstract

More than 90% of M918T carriers with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) harbor de novo mutations in the REarranged during Transfection (RET) protooncogene. DNA-based screening for RET germline mutations is rarely useful for early diagnosis, which thus is contingent on the clinical ascertainment of MEN 2B-specific symptoms as soon as they emerge. Little information exists about the presence of these symptoms in infancy. Detailed information was gathered regarding the development of MEN 2B-associated symptoms from the parents of 25 M918T RET carriers and 50 age- and sex-matched controls with the use of a disease-specific questionnaire. Until the end of the study, at a median age of 16.2 (range, 0.5-34.9 years), all 25 M918T RET carriers had developed medullary thyroid cancer. By that time, 96%, 91%, 71%, 75%, and 28% of carriers displayed oral manifestations, ocular abnormalities, intestinal symptoms, musculoskeletal malformations, and pheochromocytoma, respectively. During the first year of life, fewer than 20% of carriers were found to express the typical MEN 2B phenotype, whereas 86% and 61% of these children, but none of the controls, were noted for their inability to cry tears and for constipation. Because the cla...Continue Reading

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