Jan 1, 1995

Prenatal craniofacial development: new insights on normal and abnormal mechanisms

Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine : an Official Publication of the American Association of Oral Biologists
M C Johnston, P T Bronsky


Technical advances are radically altering our concepts of normal prenatal craniofacial development. These include concepts of germ layer formation, the establishment of the initial head plan in the neural plate, and the manner in which head segmentation is controlled by regulatory (homeobox) gene activity in neuromeres and their derived neural crest cells. There is also a much better appreciation of ways in which new cell associations are established. For example, the associations are achieved by neural crest cells primarily through cell migration and subsequent cell interactions that regulate induction, growth, programmed cell death, etc. These interactions are mediated primarily by two groups of regulatory molecules: "growth factors" (e.g., FGF and TGF alpha) and the so-called steroid/thyroid/retinoic acid superfamily. Considerable advances have been made with respect to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in primary and secondary palate formation, such as growth, morphogenetic movements, and the fusion/merging phenomenon. Much progress has been made on the mechanisms involved in the final differentiation of skeletal tissues. Molecular genetics and animal models for human malformations are providing many insights int...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Pathogenic Aspects
Fetal Structures
Hemifacial Microsomia
Retinoic acid receptor alpha
FGFR2 gene
Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors

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