Prenatal diagnosis of congenital cardiac anomalies: a practical approach using two basic views
Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Jodi M BarbozaTeresita L Angtuaco
Structural cardiac anomalies are estimated to occur in 8 of every 1,000 live births. Cardiovascular anomalies are frequently associated with other congenital anomalies because the heart is among the last organs to develop completely in the embryo. The guidelines for routine prenatal evaluation of both the American College of Radiology and the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine require evaluation of the fetal heart. The ultrasonographic (US) view that is most commonly used is the four-chamber view, which allows assessment of abnormalities involving the atria and the ventricles. However, this view is not adequate for demonstrating the outflow tracts of the aorta and pulmonary artery. A base view that demonstrates the crossing of the great vessels can be obtained just superior to the four-chamber view. Addition of the base view to routine US evaluation with the four-chamber view increases not only the sensitivity for detection of cardiac anomalies but also the accuracy of diagnosis.
Mar 6, 2013·Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology : the Official Journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology· International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and GynecologyS Yagel
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.