Prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease
Owing to the widely different levels of experience of examiners, there is a large discrepancy in study results of second trimester ultrasound screening for fetal malformations, which is a result of varying levels of obstetric scanning expertise prevalent at the reporting centre. This holds particularly true for the prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart disease where detection rates ranging from 0 per cent to 60 per cent are being reported. On the other hand, congenital heart disease affects about 4-8 per 1000 live births and is a leading cause of infant mortality, whereas prenatal diagnosis could possibly prevent death and long-term morbidity in some of these neonates. Various screening concepts for more effective detection of congenital heart diseases are analysed in this article, including the more recent technique of early echocardiography between 13 and 15 weeks of gestation. High-risk groups are defined and the group of fetuses with increased thickness of nuchal translucency seems to be of particular interest.
Fetal nuchal translucency: ultrasound screening for chromosomal defects in first trimester of pregnancy
Routine radiographer screening for fetal abnormalities by ultrasound in an unselected low risk population
Extended fetal echocardiographic examination for detecting cardiac malformations in low risk pregnancies
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Prospective evaluation of the fetal heart using Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography (FINE)
Diagnosis of congenital heart disease in an era of universal prenatal ultrasound screening in southwest Ohio
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Pulmonary artery/aorta ratio in simple screening for fetal outflow tract abnormalities during the second trimester
Four-year experience with prenatal diagnosis of congenital heart defects at a single referral center in Japan with focus on inaccurately diagnosed cases
Semiautomatic Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography Has the Potential to Aid Cardiac Evaluations Even in Less Experienced Hands
Feasibility of Semiautomatic Fetal Intelligent Navigation Echocardiography for Different Fetal Spine Positions: A Matter of "Time"?
Prenatal ultrasound screening of congenital heart disease in the general population: general concepts, guidelines, differential diagnoses
Early fetal echocardiography: heart biometry and visualization of cardiac structures between 10 and 15 weeks' gestation
Diagnostic performance of fetal intelligent navigation echocardiography (FINE) in fetuses with double-outlet right ventricle (DORV)
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Strategies for diagnosis of fetal right atrium dilation: based on fetal cardiac anatomy and hemodynamics.
Prenatal screening of fetal ventriculoarterial connections: benefits of 4D technique in fetal heart imaging
Prenatal evaluation of fetal atrioventricular valves by real-time 4D volume imaging with electronic matrix probe.
Birth defects encompass structural and functional alterations that occur during embryonic or fetal development and are present since birth. The cause may be genetic, environmental or unknown and can result in physical and/or mental impairment. Here is the latest research on birth defects.