Prenatal nicotine exposure blunts the cardiorespiratory response to hypoxia in lambs

American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Ola HafströmHåkan W Sundell

Abstract

Because smoking during pregnancy is a major risk factor for late fetal death and the sudden infant death syndrome, we investigated cardiorespiratory defense mechanisms to hypoxia in 7 prenatally nicotine-exposed (N) lambs (approximate maternal dose: 0.5 mg/kg/day) and 11 control (C) lambs all at an average age of 5 days. The ventilatory response to 10% oxygen (hyperpnea) was significantly attenuated during quiet sleep in N lambs compared with C lambs and in N lambs aroused from sleep later compared with C lambs (161 +/- 90 versus 75 +/- 66 seconds, p < 0.05). The ventilatory response to hypoxia was similar in the two groups during wakefulness (W), whereas the heart rate response (tachycardia) was significantly lower in N lambs compared with C lambs during both activity states. The ventilatory response to hyperoxia was significantly lower in N lambs compared with C lambs during both activity states. Transition from W to quiet sleep was associated with a significant decrease in ventilation in C lambs but not in N lambs. In conclusion, prenatal nicotine exposure, at a dose comparable with moderate smoking, blunts major elements of the cardiorespiratory defense to hypoxia, i.e., the heart rate and ventilatory and arousal responses,...Continue Reading

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