Jul 1, 1976

Presence or absence of inhibitors of crystal growth in bile. 1. Effect of bile on the formation of calcium phosphate, a constituent of gallstones

D J Sutor, J M Percival


When calcium and phosphate ions were mixed so that their final concentration was 4 mmol/1 and the pH was kept at 7-0, an amorphous precipitate immediately formed and this changed into crystalline material with an apatite-like structure after a period of time. The formation of either or both types of precipitate could be slowed down or prevented by adding to the crystallising medium trace amounts of pyrophosphate or citrate which are known inhibitors of the formation of calcium phosphate, or large quantities of sodium chloride which increased the ionic strength of the solution and hence the solubility of calcium phosphate, Both common duct and gallbladder bile from patients with gallstones composed of cholesterol and/or calcium carbonate had a very pronounced inhibitory action on the formation of these precipitates. Only very small amounts of bile were necessary to produce these effects, which therefore were not due to an increase in ionic strength. Ultrafiltration of bile showed that material with a molecular weight greater than 10 000 was mainly responsible for this activity. Because the inhibitor was present in both common duct and gallbladder bile, the liver is the likely source of origin. The possible identity of this mater...Continue Reading

  • References3
  • Citations17

Mentioned in this Paper

Calcium [EPC]
Citrate Measurement
Phosphate Measurement
Biliary Calculi
Calcium Phosphates
Sodium Chloride
Calcarea phosphorica, calcium phosphate, Homeopathic preparation
Crystal Structure

About this Paper

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.

© 2020 Meta ULC. All rights reserved