PMID: 6987773Jan 1, 1980Paper

Preservation of extracellular space during fixation of the brain for electron microscopy

Tissue & Cell
B Cragg


Adult mammalian brain contains about 20% extracellular space, but fixatives cause the cellular processes to ingest the extracellular fluid, and the space is not preserved in electron micrographs prepared by any of the conventional methods. This distortion can be prevented by replacing part of the sodium chloride in the extracellular fluid by an impermeant solute such as sucrose. To do this, the blood-brain barrier can be opened by vascular perfusion at 300 mmHg pressure, or the barrier can be bypassed by immersion of thin slices of fresh brain in the impermeant solution. In either case, addition of aldehyde fixatives and conventional processing then leads to the preservation of extracellular space in electron micrographs. Both procedures are as easy to use for routine fixation as conventional methods. In well fixed tissue the cellular processes are different in size, shape and electron density from the inflated profiles seen after the ingestion of extracellular fluid that accompanies conventional fixation. Moreover, extracellular space is found to separate widely some cellular elements, while leaving others contiguous.


Sep 1, 1976·Experimental Neurology·S I Rapoport
Oct 1, 1969·Journal of Ultrastructure Research·F González-Aguilar
Jan 1, 1970·The Anatomical Record·A Van Harreveld, J Steiner
Jan 1, 1966·Ergebnisse der Physiologie, biologischen Chemie und experimentellen Pharmakologie·S W Kuffler, J G Nicholls


Apr 3, 2001·Magnetic Resonance in Medicine : Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine·B A InglisT H Mareci
Jul 1, 1986·Neuroscience and Behavioral Physiology·L A Fedosikhina
Jun 13, 2008·Cell and Tissue Banking·Lea T GrinbergBrazilian Aging Brain Study Group
Feb 1, 1982·Journal of the Neurological Sciences·S ReesA V Everitt
Jun 10, 2004·Neurochemistry International·Christopher D Kroenke, Jeffrey J Neil
May 1, 1992·Equine Veterinary Journal·R F SlocombeD K Finkelstein
Aug 31, 2012·Science Translational Medicine·Elizabeth A NanceJustin Hanes
Jul 13, 2000·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·K C Chen, C Nicholson
Jul 17, 2014·Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN·Atsuko KobayashiJulie M Miwa
Sep 27, 2015·Cryobiology·Robert L McIntyre, Gregory M Fahy
Jan 18, 2008·Brain Research Reviews·Milton PongA R Gibson
Oct 7, 2014·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·Tyler W StradleighAndrew T Ishida
Apr 9, 2009·Magnetic Resonance in Medicine : Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine·Timothy M ShepherdStephen J Blackband
Sep 20, 2007·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·Nobuhiko OhnoShinichi Ohno
Jun 29, 2012·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·Justin P KinneyTerrence J Sejnowski
Apr 14, 2015·Nature Methods·Shawn Mikula, Winfried Denk
Dec 1, 1996·Vision Research·C A VandenbrandenH Spekreijse
Jul 26, 2016·Frontiers in Neuroanatomy·Shawn Mikula
Mar 7, 2006·Trends in Neurosciences·Alan R Kay
Aug 6, 2017·Reviews in the Neurosciences·Katherine L PerkinsSabina Hrabetova
May 15, 2018·Frontiers of Physics·Ileana O Jelescu, Matthew D Budde
Oct 21, 2005·BioTechniques·Kenneth D EichenbaumPaul H Pevsner
Jun 20, 1983·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·C Brandon, D M Lam
May 10, 1983·The Journal of Comparative Neurology·L D Beazley, S A Dunlop
Sep 17, 2008·Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology·Esther Reina-RomoM Doblaré
Jul 1, 1989·Biulleten' eksperimental'noĭ biologii i meditsiny·T N IvanovaN I Losev
Oct 5, 2011·Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences·María José Gómez-BenitoJosé Manuel García-Aznar
Apr 22, 2009·Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences·L GerisH Van Oosterwyck
May 14, 2021·ELife·Kara A Fulton, Kevin L Briggman

Related Concepts

Blood - Brain Barrier Anatomy
Extracellular Space
Histological Techniques
Intercellular Junctions
Electron Microscopy

Related Feeds

Blood Brain Barrier Regulation in Health & Disease

The blood brain barrier is essential in regulating the movement of molecules and substances in and out of the brain. Disruption to the blood brain barrier and changes in permeability allow pathogens and inflammatory molecules to cross the barrier and may play a part in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Here is the latest research in this field.

Blood Brain Barrier Chips

The blood brain barrier (BBB) is comprised of endothelial cells that regulate the influx and outflux of plasma concentrations. Lab-on-a-chip devices allow scientists to model diseases and mechanisms such as the passage of therapeutic antibodies across the BBB. Discover the latest research on BBB chips here.

Blood Brain Barrier

The blood brain barrier is a border that separates blood from cerebrospinal fluid. Discover the latest search on this highly selective semipermeable membrane here.