Preventive measures for the critical postexercise period in sickle cell trait and disease.

Journal of Applied Physiology
Laurent A MessonnierLéonard Féasson


The immediate postexercise/physical activity period is critical for sickle cell trait (SCT) carriers and disease (SCD) patients. Exercise-related blood acidosis is known to trigger the cascade of HbS deoxygenation and polymerization, leading to red blood cell sickling and subsequent complications. Unfortunately, two facts worsen exercise-related blood acidosis during the initial postexercise period: First, blood lactate and H+ concentrations continue to increase for several minutes after exercise completion, exacerbating blood acidosis. Second, blood lactate concentration remains elevated and pH altered for 20-45 min during inactivity after intense exercise, keeping acid/base balance disturbed for a long period after exercise. Therefore, the risk of complications (including vasoocclusive crises and even sudden death) persists and even worsens several minutes after intense exercise completion in SCT carriers or SCD patients. Light physical activity following intense exercise (namely, active recovery) may, by accelerating lactate removal and acid/base balance restoration, reduce the risk of complications. Scientific evidence suggests that light exercise at or below the first lactate threshold is an appropriate strategy.


Dec 1, 1975·Journal of Applied Physiology·A N Belcastro, A Bonen
Dec 1, 1992·Annals of Emergency Medicine·M A Rosenthal, D J Parker
May 1, 1992·Journal of Applied Physiology·H S MacRaeT D Noakes
Apr 1, 1986·Journal of Applied Physiology·W C StanleyGeorge A Brooks
Nov 1, 1988·Journal of Applied Physiology·J M KowalchukN L Jones
Mar 24, 1988·The New England Journal of Medicine·A M Davis
Sep 24, 1987·The New England Journal of Medicine·J A KarkC J Ruehle
Dec 1, 1985·The American Journal of Physiology·W C StanleyGeorge A Brooks
May 14, 1970·The New England Journal of Medicine·R H Nishiyama, H A Oberman
Feb 5, 1970·The New England Journal of Medicine·S R JonesE M Donowho
Jul 1, 1982·Annals of Clinical Biochemistry·R Beetham
May 1, 1983·The American Journal of Medicine·S CharacheD S Bross
Mar 1, 1993·The Journal of Physiology·J BangsboB Saltin
Apr 1, 1997·Physiological Reviews·C Juel
May 1, 1996·Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise·D Le GallaisJ Dauverchain
Nov 14, 2001·American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology·R BergeronH Galbo
May 7, 2002·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·Leigh A CallahanBernard Gutin
Jun 1, 2002·Journal of Critical Care·Walter H ReinhartRoland Walter
Nov 4, 2004·Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine : Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine·Michael F BergeronAbdullah Kutlar
Jul 15, 2005·Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise·Geraldine MonchaninCyril Martin
Sep 22, 2005·British Journal of Haematology·Charles T Quinn, Naveed Ahmad
Mar 1, 2006·European Journal of Applied Physiology·Philippe ConnesOlivier Hue
Mar 1, 1948·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·A J MerrillE Cavin
Sep 21, 2006·American Journal of Hematology·Hisham MoheebM S El-Sayed
Feb 17, 2007·Journal of Applied Physiology·Michael Gleeson
Mar 24, 2007·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·Anastasia AnthiMark T Gladwin
Aug 29, 2007·Sports Medicine·Jordan S Querido, A William Sheel
Jul 16, 2008·Physiological Reviews·Dirk J Duncker, Robert J Bache
Dec 17, 2009·Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise·Mary L AnzaloneE Randy Eichner
Jun 18, 2011·Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise·Barbara E AinsworthArthur S Leon
Dec 2, 2011·IUBMB Life·Erica N Chirico, Vincent Pialoux
Mar 15, 2012·Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation·Xavier WaltzPhilippe Connes
Jan 3, 2013·Journal of Bone and Mineral Research : the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research·Ilkka HeinonenKari K Kalliokoski
Jun 22, 2013·Journal of Applied Physiology·Chi-An W EmhoffGeorge A Brooks
Nov 23, 2013·Journal of Applied Physiology·R V ImminkJ J van Lieshout
Jan 25, 2014·Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN·Stéphane MaurelJean-Philippe Haymann
Mar 17, 2015·The American Journal of Pathology·Marion RavelojaonaLaurent A Messonnier
Aug 16, 2016·The New England Journal of Medicine·D Alan NelsonLianne M Kurina
Mar 4, 2017·FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology·Benjamin ChatelLaurent A Messonnier
Jul 21, 2017·The New England Journal of Medicine·Baba InusaAmbroise Wonkam
Jul 21, 2017·The New England Journal of Medicine·Aubrey Milunsky
Jan 13, 2018·European Journal of Applied Physiology·Brian S FergusonL Bruce Gladden
Apr 5, 2018·Cell Metabolism·George A Brooks
May 26, 2018·Sports Medicine - Open·Bruce L Mitchell
Jul 20, 2018·Experimental Physiology·Benjamin ChatelDavid Bendahan
Nov 2, 2018·Annals of Internal Medicine·Rakhi P NaikGregory J Kato
Mar 29, 2019·Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise·Laurent A MessonnierLéonard Féasson

Related Concepts

Acid-Base Equilibrium
Anemia, Sickle Cell
Genetic Carriers
Sudden Death
Sickle Cell Trait

Related Feeds


Anemia develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells. Anemia of inflammation (AI, also called anemia of chronic disease) is a common, typically normocytic, normochromic anemia that is caused by an underlying inflammatory disease. Here is the latest research on anemia.

Blood And Marrow Transplantation

The use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or blood and marrow transplantation (bmt) is on the increase worldwide. BMT is used to replace damaged or destroyed bone marrow with healthy bone marrow stem cells. Here is the latest research on bone and marrow transplantation.