Primary cardiac and pericardial neoplasms: radiologic-pathologic correlation

Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Mary L GrebencJeffrey R Galvin

Abstract

Primary cardiac and pericardial neoplasms are rare lesions and include both benign and malignant histologic types. Myxoma is the most frequent primary cardiac neoplasm, but other benign tumors include papillary fibroelastoma, rhabdomyoma, fibroma, hemangioma, lipoma, and paraganglioma. Cardiac sarcoma represents the second most common primary cardiac neoplasm. Lymphoma can also affect the heart primarily. Pericardial tumors that affect the heart include benign teratomas and malignant mesotheliomas. Patients affected with cardiac or pericardial neoplasms often present with cardiovascular compromise or embolic phenomena and exhibit cardiomegaly at chest radiography. Benign cardiac tumors typically manifest as intracavitary, mural, or epicardial focal masses, whereas malignant tumors demonstrate invasive features and may involve the heart diffusely. Benign lesions can usually be successfully excised, but patients with malignant lesions have an extremely poor prognosis.

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