Probing Structure and Reaction Dynamics of Proteins Using Time-Resolved Resonance Raman Spectroscopy

Chemical Reviews
David Buhrke, Peter Hildebrandt

Abstract

The mechanistic understanding of protein functions requires insight into the structural and reaction dynamics. To elucidate these processes, a variety of experimental approaches are employed. Among them, time-resolved (TR) resonance Raman (RR) is a particularly versatile tool to probe processes of proteins harboring cofactors with electronic transitions in the visible range, such as retinal or heme proteins. TR RR spectroscopy offers the advantage of simultaneously providing molecular structure and kinetic information. The various TR RR spectroscopic methods can cover a wide dynamic range down to the femtosecond time regime and have been employed in monitoring photoinduced reaction cascades, ligand binding and dissociation, electron transfer, enzymatic reactions, and protein un- and refolding. In this account, we review the achievements of TR RR spectroscopy of nearly 50 years of research in this field, which also illustrates how the role of TR RR spectroscopy in molecular life science has changed from the beginning until now. We outline the various methodological approaches and developments and point out current limitations and potential perspectives.

References

Dec 1, 1977·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J TernerM A El-Sayed
Jan 1, 1979·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·G Eyring, R Mathies
Sep 1, 1979·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J A ShelnuttS R Simon
Feb 26, 1979·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·B AtonT G Ebrey
Feb 17, 1977·Nature·A CampionM A El-Sayed
Jun 28, 1977·Biochemistry·B AtonT G Ebrey
Aug 1, 1977·Biophysical Journal·O KaliskyM Ottolenghi
Jan 1, 1976·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·R MathiesL Stryer
Nov 11, 1976·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·B HudsonG K Klauminzer
Sep 1, 1975·Biophysical Journal·R H LozierW Stoeckenius
Apr 22, 1976·Nature·A LewisG J Perreault
Feb 23, 1976·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·K J KaufmannA Lewis
Apr 20, 1976·Biochemistry·R CallenderK Nakanishi
Sep 1, 1992·Biochemistry·Peter HildebrandtB Schrader
Jan 1, 1992·Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology·Teizo Kitagawa
Dec 5, 1991·European Journal of Biochemistry·H NikkilaS G Sligar
Mar 15, 1991·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·W H WoodruffD S Kliger
Jan 1, 1991·Annual Review of Biophysics and Biophysical Chemistry·Richard A MathiesW T Pollard
Dec 18, 1990·Biochemistry·S P FodorRichard A Mathies
May 15, 1990·Biochemistry·Pierre Moënne-LoccozM Lutz
Mar 1, 1989·Biophysical Journal·C PandeR Callender
Feb 1, 1986·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S O SmithRichard A Mathies
Nov 1, 1988·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·D BraunsteinR Scholl
Apr 1, 1988·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S P FodorRichard A Mathies
Feb 1, 1985·Biophysical Journal·S O Smith, Richard A Mathies
Jun 14, 1985·Science·J M Friedman
Jan 1, 1985·The Journal of Membrane Biology·S O SmithRichard A Mathies
Jul 18, 1985·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Giulietta Smulevich, Thomas G Spiro
May 1, 1985·Biophysical Journal·S O SmithJohan Lugtenburg
Nov 1, 1974·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·A LewisW Stoeckenius
Aug 24, 1968·Nature·G Wald
Sep 29, 1971·Nature: New Biology·D Oesterhelt, W Stoeckenius
May 18, 1972·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·T C Strekas, Thomas G Spiro
Dec 15, 1971·Journal of the American Chemical Society·M E HeydeL Rimai
Aug 1, 1969·European Journal of Biochemistry·A H Van den OordJ A Verheij
Nov 1, 1980·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·B EhrenbergW Stoeckenius
Aug 12, 1981·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·B Cartling, R Wilbrandt
Jan 1, 1982·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·M Braiman, Richard A Mathies
Jan 1, 1983·Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering·Denis L Rousseau, M R Ondrias
Dec 1, 1981·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J PandeT G Ebrey
Feb 1, 1981·Biophysical Journal·A G DoukasM Ottolenghi
Nov 30, 1981·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·Kenneth J RothschildW A Cantore
Jan 1, 1993·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Constantinos VarotsisG T Babcock
Apr 1, 1993·Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes·G T Babcock, Constantinos Varotsis
Dec 15, 1995·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·B YanK Nakanishi
Jan 9, 1996·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·A PoppG H Atkinson
Aug 6, 1996·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·M ChattorajS G Boxer
Nov 1, 1996·Biophysical Journal·I ChizhovB Hess
Jan 1, 1997·Nature Structural Biology·S TakahashiDenis L Rousseau
Jan 1, 1997·Folding & Design·M Karplus
Aug 28, 1997·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·Tewfik SoulimaneG Buse
Mar 21, 1998·Nature Structural Biology·S R Yeh, Denis L Rousseau
Oct 1, 1996·Nature Biotechnology·F YangG N Phillips
Jul 1, 1998·Annual Review of Biophysics and Biomolecular Structure·H MichelA Kannt
Apr 16, 1999·Science·G S KachalovaH D Bartunik
May 5, 1999·Current Opinion in Chemical Biology·K R Rodgers
Jun 11, 1999·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·S R Yeh, Denis L Rousseau
Aug 24, 1999·Journal of Molecular Biology·Hartmut LueckeJanos K Lanyi
Nov 11, 1999·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·G T Babcock
Jan 15, 2000·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·S HanDenis L Rousseau
Aug 5, 2000·Science·Krzysztof PalczewskiM Miyano
Aug 10, 2000·Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography·J R Tame, B Vallone
Sep 14, 2000·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·N A DencherGeorg Büldt
Feb 24, 2001·Advances in Colloid and Interface Science·R J Clarke
Apr 11, 2001·Trends in Biochemical Sciences·M Brunori
Jul 18, 2001·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Daniel H Murgida, Peter Hildebrandt
Jan 12, 2002·Bioelectrochemistry·Peter Hildebrandt, Daniel H Murgida
Mar 16, 2002·Chemical Record : an Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]·Y Mizutani, Teizo Kitagawa
Apr 12, 2002·Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology·F M ValenteI A Pereira
Aug 9, 2002·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Jianjun WeiD H Waldeck
Sep 19, 2002·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Alexander V RubanPeter Horton
Mar 13, 2003·Advances in Protein Chemistry·Hartmut Luecke, Janos K Lanyi
Mar 15, 2003·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Eftychia PinakoulakiConstantinos Varotsis
May 28, 2003·European Biophysics Journal : EBJ·Silke OellerichPeter Hildebrandt
Aug 7, 2003·Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry·Hainer Wackerbarth, Peter Hildebrandt
Mar 1, 1963·The Biochemical Journal·Q H GIBSON, C GREENWOOD
May 1, 1965·Journal of Molecular Biology·J MONODJ P CHANGEUX
Feb 24, 2004·Annual Review of Physiology·Janos K Lanyi
Apr 21, 2004·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Masashi UnnoSeigo Yamauchi
Apr 22, 2004·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Takashi Ogura, Teizo Kitagawa
May 26, 2004·Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Biological Crystallography·Spencer AndersonKeith Moffat
Dec 21, 2004·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·John T M KennisRienk van Grondelle
Dec 23, 2004·Accounts of Chemical Research·Daniel H Murgida, Peter Hildebrandt
Apr 14, 2005·Chemical Reviews·J Christopher LoveGeorge M Whitesides
May 11, 2005·Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry·T AlbrechtPeter Hildebrandt
Jul 14, 2005·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Toshinari TakahashiShinya Yoshikawa
Dec 17, 2005·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Daniel H Murgida, Peter Hildebrandt
Dec 22, 2005·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Karsten HeyneMichael A Cusanovich
Dec 22, 2005·Journal of Molecular Biology·Janina KneippThomas G Spiro
Dec 27, 2005·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Janos K Lanyi
Feb 14, 2006·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Inez WeidingerPeter Hildebrandt
Nov 1, 1986·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·E L ChronisterM A El-Sayed
Jul 1, 1979·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J TernerM A El-Sayed
Apr 15, 2006·Science·Ben N G GiepmansRoger Y Tsien
Apr 25, 2006·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Philipp KukuraRichard A Mathies
May 20, 2006·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·David W McCamantRichard A Mathies
Jun 7, 2006·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Judy E KimRichard A Mathies
Jun 8, 2006·Annual Review of Biochemistry·Krzysztof Palczewski
Jul 21, 2006·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·David W McCamantRichard A Mathies
Jul 21, 2006·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Masashi UnnoSeigo Yamauchi
Aug 1, 2006·Biophysical Journal·Enrica DroghettiGiulietta Smulevich
Aug 31, 2006·Photochemistry and Photobiology·Yasushi Imamoto, Mikio Kataoka
Oct 6, 2006·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Gurusamy BalakrishnanThomas G Spiro
Nov 16, 2006·Annual Review of Physical Chemistry·Philipp KukuraRichard A Mathies
Nov 30, 2006·Photochemistry and Photobiology·Takayoshi KobayashiMotoyuki Tsuda
Dec 1, 2006·Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences : Official Journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology·Hendrik NaumannDaniel H Murgida
Jan 18, 2007·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Anat KahanSanford Ruhman
Apr 21, 2007·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Sergei G KruglikM H Vos
May 23, 2007·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Akira SatoYasuhisa Mizutani
Oct 2, 2007·Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids·Jana GrocholDaniel H Murgida
Apr 30, 2008·Chemical Society Reviews·Daniel H Murgida, Peter Hildebrandt
Jul 3, 2008·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Anja KranichDaniel H Murgida
Aug 30, 2008·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Nattawadee WisitruangsakulPeter Hildebrandt
Sep 19, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Lars-Oliver EssenJon Hughes
Nov 1, 2008·Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes·Peter Brzezinski, Robert B Gennis
Nov 4, 2008·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Jiu-Ju FengInez Weidinger
Jan 31, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Jyotishman DasguptaRichard A Mathies
Feb 5, 2009·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Marc GrosserueschkampRenate L C Naumann
Mar 17, 2009·Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : JBIC : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry·Gurusamy BalakrishnanThomas G Spiro
Apr 2, 2009·Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences : Official Journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology·Jan Kubelka
Apr 14, 2009·Accounts of Chemical Research·John R Lombardi, Ronald L Birke
Mar 1, 1986·Biophysical Journal·H J PollandD Oesterhelt
Sep 1, 1990·Biophysical Journal·R GovindjeeT G Ebrey
May 16, 2009·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Sangdeok ShimRichard A Mathies
May 28, 2009·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Erik T YuklPierre Moënne-Loccoz
Aug 20, 2009·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Anja KranichDaniel H Murgida
Aug 20, 2009·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·P ZuoPeter Hildebrandt
Sep 2, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Xiaojing YangKeith Moffat
Oct 7, 2009·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Ariel Lewis-BallesterSyun-Ru Yeh
Nov 6, 2009·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Pablo M De BiaseMarcelo Martí
Feb 16, 2010·Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry·Nathan C Rockwell, J Clark Lagarias
Apr 7, 2010·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Damián Alvarez-PaggiDaniel H Murgida
Apr 9, 2010·Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry·Hoang Khoa LyDaniel H Murgida
Jun 15, 2010·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Murat SezerInez Weidinger
Jul 21, 2010·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Sergei G KruglikMichel Negrerie
Nov 9, 2010·Chemical Reviews·Ville R I KailaMårten Wikström
Dec 21, 2010·Journal of Synchrotron Radiation·Deborah Stoner-MaAllen M Orville
Jun 22, 2011·Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry·Jan Philip KraackMarcus Motzkus
Jun 23, 2011·Annual Review of Neuroscience·Lief FennoKarl Deisseroth
Sep 10, 2011·Science·Yongxin ZhaoRobert E Campbell
Sep 17, 2011·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Maria F MolinasDaniel H Murgida
Nov 29, 2011·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Renee R FrontieraRichard A Mathies
Dec 6, 2011·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Tsuyoshi EgawaDenis L Rousseau
Dec 17, 2011·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Takashi Ogura
Jan 14, 2012·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Yuka MurakawaYasuhisa Mizutani
Oct 3, 2012·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Meike LuckPeter Hegemann
Nov 28, 2012·Science·Ken A Dill, Justin L MacCallum
Dec 14, 2012·PLoS Computational Biology·Alexander N Volkov, Nico A J van Nuland
Dec 28, 2012·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Joseph SabatSyun-Ru Yeh
Feb 27, 2013·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Eglof RitterFranz Bartl
Mar 30, 2013·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Hazel M Girvan, Andrew W Munro
Apr 23, 2013·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Johannes SalewskiPeter Hildebrandt
Apr 25, 2013·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Damián Alvarez-PaggiDaniel H Murgida
Oct 2, 2013·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Vivek SharmaMårten Wikström
Nov 28, 2013·Chemical Reviews·Jay R Winkler, Harry B Gray
Dec 20, 2013·International Journal of Radiation Biology·Jungkweon ChoiTetsuro Majima
Dec 25, 2013·Chemical Reviews·Oliver P ErnstHideki Kandori
Jan 23, 2014·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Yuki SudoYasuhisa Mizutani
Apr 9, 2014·Angewandte Chemie·Sebastian Schlücker
Jun 28, 2014·Physical Review Letters·M LiebelPhilipp Kukura
Jul 6, 2014·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Breland G OscarChong Fang
Aug 20, 2014·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Satoru NakashimaTeizo Kitagawa
Sep 2, 2014·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Philip J M JohnsonR J Dwayne Miller
Nov 29, 2014·Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences : Official Journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology·D PolliG Cerullo
Dec 11, 2014·Annual Review of Biochemistry·Joseph A Marsh, Sarah A Teichmann
Jan 13, 2015·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·Florian W Krainer, Anton Glieder
Jan 13, 2015·Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : JBIC : a Publication of the Society of Biological Inorganic Chemistry·Satoshi NagaoShun Hirota
Jan 21, 2015·Chemical Reviews·Shinya Yoshikawa, Atsuhiro Shimada
Jan 22, 2015·Chemical Reviews·Yue YuanChien Ho
Mar 31, 2015·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Takehiro OhtaConstantinos Varotsis
Apr 23, 2015·Nature Chemistry·Francisco Velazquez EscobarPeter Hildebrandt
Jun 15, 2015·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·Margareta R A Blomberg, Per E M Siegbahn
Jul 28, 2015·Chemical Science·Daniel T KwasnieskiZachary D Schultz
Aug 12, 2015·The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters·Tilo MathesJohn T M Kennis
Apr 18, 2013·The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters·Matz Liebel, Philipp Kukura
Sep 8, 2015·Current Opinion in Structural Biology·Matteo LevantinoArwen R Pearson
Dec 3, 2015·Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry·Jyotishman DasguptaRichard A Mathies
Mar 17, 2016·The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters·Longteng TangChong Fang
Mar 22, 2016·Journal of the American Chemical Society·Christoph SchnedermannJoachim Heberle
Mar 24, 2016·Accounts of Chemical Research·David P Hoffman, Richard A Mathies
Apr 14, 2016·The Analyst·Rachael SmithLorna Ashton
Aug 24, 2016·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Yusaku HontaniJohn T M Kennis
Aug 31, 2016·The Biochemical Journal·Victor Muñoz, Michele Cerminara
Dec 15, 2016·Chemical Reviews·Richard C PrinceEric O Potma
Apr 26, 2017·Annual Review of Biochemistry·F Ulrich Hartl
Apr 27, 2017·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Salman S SeyediDmitry V Matyushov
Jun 18, 2017·Biochemical Society Transactions·Peter R Rich
Jun 21, 2017·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·S Walter Englander, Leland Mayne
Jul 13, 2017·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Izumi IshigamiDenis L Rousseau
Oct 14, 2017·Chemical Reviews·Damián Alvarez-PaggiDaniel H Murgida
Nov 25, 2017·Science·Oleksandr VolkovValentin Gordeliy
Dec 21, 2017·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Shanyan ChangYasuhisa Mizutani
Jan 13, 2018·Chemphyschem : a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry·David BuhrkePeter Hildebrandt
Feb 21, 2018·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. a·Misao MizunoYasuhisa Mizutani
Mar 14, 2018·Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology·Jonathan M GrimesDavid I Stuart
Mar 24, 2018·The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters·Yusaku HontaniJohn T M Kennis
Apr 7, 2018·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Heikki TakalaJanne A Ihalainen
May 1, 2018·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Longteng TangChong Fang
Aug 16, 2018·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Hernan BiavaPeter Hildebrandt
Sep 12, 2018·Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry·Longteng TangChong Fang
Oct 4, 2018·Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences : Official Journal of the European Photochemistry Association and the European Society for Photobiology·Dmitry Malyshka, Reinhard Schweitzer-Stenner
Oct 31, 2018·The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters·Yusaku HontaniJohn T M Kennis
Nov 23, 2018·Nature Communications·Andrea SchmidtPatrick Scheerer
Feb 12, 2019·The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters·Partha Pratim RoyTiago Buckup
Feb 28, 2019·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Izumi IshigamiDenis L Rousseau
Mar 13, 2019·Current Opinion in Structural Biology·Jörg Standfuss
Apr 5, 2019·The Journal of Physical Chemistry. B·Nao NishimuraYasuhisa Mizutani

Citations

Feb 19, 2021·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·Jan Niklas PaukLukas Veiter
Mar 24, 2020·Chemical Reviews·Víctor A Lórenz-Fonfría
Nov 20, 2020·Chemical Reviews·Julia Westermayr, Philipp Marquetand

Related Concepts

Hemeproteins
Ligands
Electron Microscopy
Research
Retina
Spectrum Analysis, Raman
Resolving Infantile Idiopathic Scoliosis
Chemical cofactor
Approach
Structure

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection

Lipidomics can be used to examine the lipid species involved with pathogenic conditions, such as viral associated inflammation. Discovered the latest research on Lipidomics & Rhinovirus Infection.

Glut1 Deficiency

Glut1 deficiency, an autosomal dominant, genetic metabolic disorder associated with a deficiency of GLUT1, the protein that transports glucose across the blood brain barrier, is characterized by mental and motor developmental delays and infantile seizures. Follow the latest research on Glut1 deficiency with this feed.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Laryngeal Neoplasms

Laryngeal Neoplasms occur in the Larynx and are typically associated with smoking and alcohol consumption. Discover the latest research on Laryngeal Neoplasms here.

Cell Atlas Along the Gut-Brain Axis

Profiling cells along the gut-brain axis at the single cell level will provide unique information for each cell type, a three-dimensional map of how cell types work together to form tissues, and insights into how changes in the map underlie health and disease of the GI system and its crosstalk with the brain. Disocver the latest research on single cell analysis of the gut-brain axis here.