Processed Food Additive Microbial Transglutaminase and Its Cross-Linked Gliadin Complexes Are Potential Public Health Concerns in Celiac Disease

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aaron Lerner, Torsten Matthias

Abstract

Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) is a survival factor for microbes, but yeasts, fungi, and plants also produce transglutaminase. mTG is a cross-linker that is heavily consumed as a protein glue in multiple processed food industries. According to the manufacturers' claims, microbial transglutaminase and its cross-linked products are safe, i.e., nonallergenic, nonimmunogenic, and nonpathogenic. The regulatory authorities declare it as "generally recognized as safe" for public users. However, scientific observations are accumulating concerning its undesirable effects on human health. Functionally, mTG imitates its family member, tissue transglutaminase, which is the autoantigen of celiac disease. Both these transglutaminases mediate cross-linked complexes, which are immunogenic in celiac patients. The enzyme enhances intestinal permeability, suppresses mechanical (mucus) and immunological (anti phagocytic) enteric protective barriers, stimulates luminal bacterial growth, and augments the uptake of gliadin peptide. mTG and gliadin molecules are cotranscytosed through the enterocytes and deposited subepithelially. Moreover, mucosal dendritic cell surface transglutaminase induces gliadin endocytosis, and the enzyme-treated wheat prod...Continue Reading

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Citations

Mar 15, 2020·FEBS Open Bio·Aaron LernerTorsten Matthias
Apr 4, 2021·Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry·Elaine Berger CeresinoRamune Kuktaite
Jul 13, 2021·Mass Spectrometry Reviews·Giovanni RenzoneAndrea Scaloni
Aug 3, 2021·Nutrition Reviews·Aaron LernerYehuda Shoenfeld

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