Processed Food Additive Microbial Transglutaminase and Its Cross-Linked Gliadin Complexes Are Potential Public Health Concerns in Celiac Disease

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Aaron Lerner, Torsten Matthias


Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) is a survival factor for microbes, but yeasts, fungi, and plants also produce transglutaminase. mTG is a cross-linker that is heavily consumed as a protein glue in multiple processed food industries. According to the manufacturers' claims, microbial transglutaminase and its cross-linked products are safe, i.e., nonallergenic, nonimmunogenic, and nonpathogenic. The regulatory authorities declare it as "generally recognized as safe" for public users. However, scientific observations are accumulating concerning its undesirable effects on human health. Functionally, mTG imitates its family member, tissue transglutaminase, which is the autoantigen of celiac disease. Both these transglutaminases mediate cross-linked complexes, which are immunogenic in celiac patients. The enzyme enhances intestinal permeability, suppresses mechanical (mucus) and immunological (anti phagocytic) enteric protective barriers, stimulates luminal bacterial growth, and augments the uptake of gliadin peptide. mTG and gliadin molecules are cotranscytosed through the enterocytes and deposited subepithelially. Moreover, mucosal dendritic cell surface transglutaminase induces gliadin endocytosis, and the enzyme-treated wheat prod...Continue Reading


Aug 19, 1999·Protein Science : a Publication of the Protein Society·K S MakarovaE V Koonin
May 4, 2002·Microbiology·María IranzoSalvador Mormeneo
Jun 11, 2002·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·Jae-Hong KimSang Chul Park
Jan 24, 2004·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·K YokoyamaY Kikuchi
Feb 12, 2004·Autoimmunity Reviews·Shimon Reif, Aaron Lerner
Feb 24, 2006·Virus Research·Lakshminarayan M IyerL Aravind
Feb 25, 2006·Yeast·Frans M KlisPiet W J De Groot
Feb 22, 2007·Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry·Cristiana BertiFabio Forlani
Jan 16, 2008·Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry·Francisco Cabrera-ChávezAna M Calderón de la Barca
Feb 29, 2008·Digestive Diseases and Sciences·Maria Letizia FaliniFabio Forlani
Jan 9, 2009·ALTEX·Thomas Hartung, Herman Koeter
Mar 18, 2009·Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry·Francisco Cabrera-ChávezAna M Calderón de la Barca
Oct 24, 2009·Protein Engineering, Design & Selection : PEDS·Uno TagamiTakatsugu Hirokawa
Nov 3, 2010·Journal of Microencapsulation·S FuchsC Coester
Jan 1, 2010·Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews·Dongxu ZhangJian Chen
Jul 4, 2012·Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment·A KaufmannM Widmer
Jul 28, 2012·Human Immunology·Luca ElliMaria Teresa Bardella
Apr 6, 2013·BMC Medicine·Aaron LernerYehuda Shoenfeld
Jun 7, 2013·Journal of Human Genetics·Hiroshi Kimura
Aug 22, 2013·Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research : the Official Journal of the International Society for Interferon and Cytokine Research·Jennifer L Owen, Mansour Mohamadzadeh
Nov 8, 2013·Folia Microbiologica·Marek Kieliszek, Anna Misiewicz
Jan 15, 2014·Orvosi hetilap·Dorottya KocsisMárk Juhász
Apr 4, 2014·Bioconjugate Chemistry·Pavel Strop
Apr 30, 2014·Frontiers in Plant Science·Stefano Del DucaGiampiero Cai
Jun 12, 2014·Food & Function·Nina Gisella Heredia-SandovalAna María Calderón de la Barca
Jun 26, 2014·Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology·Ivone M MartinsAltino Branco Choupina
Oct 2, 2014·The New England Journal of Medicine·Jonas F Ludvigsson, Peter H R Green
Mar 20, 2015·Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology·Yaya PianYongqiang Jiang
Mar 21, 2015·PloS One·Marion CorougeDaniel Poulain
Apr 22, 2015·Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition·D SanthiS Arun Prabhu
Apr 30, 2015·United European Gastroenterology Journal·Carolina CiacciGillian L Swift
Oct 27, 2015·Methods in Molecular Biology·Antoinette S PerrySteven G Gray

❮ Previous
Next ❯


Mar 15, 2020·FEBS Open Bio·Aaron LernerTorsten Matthias
Apr 4, 2021·Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry·Elaine Berger CeresinoRamune Kuktaite
Jul 13, 2021·Mass Spectrometry Reviews·Giovanni RenzoneAndrea Scaloni
Aug 3, 2021·Nutrition Reviews·Aaron LernerYehuda Shoenfeld

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.