Prolonged Antibiotic Treatment Generates a Fluoroquinolone Resistant Gut Microbiome and Collateral Multi-Drug Resistance

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Vadim DubinskyIris Dotan

Abstract

Antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens represents a growing threat to modern medicine. Limitation of lengthy and broad-spectrum antibacterial treatment regimens is generally recommended. Nevertheless, some conditions may require prolonged antibiotic treatment. The effects of such treatments on bacterial communities, specifically their resistome, is yet unknown. Here, we followed a unique cohort of patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent total large bowel resection and the formation of an ileal pouch from their normal small bowel. The majority of these patients tend to develop inflammation of this previously normal small bowel, known as "pouchitis". Pouchitis is commonly treated with repeated or prolonged courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics. By using metagenomics of faecal samples obtained longitudinally from patients treated with antibiotics for prolonged periods, we hereby show that the majority of their gut commensal bacteria develop antibiotic resistance by point-mutations. In addition, some bacterial species had acquired multidrug resistance loci with genes that confer resistance to the drug used in the treatment (ciprofloxacin) but co-localized with genes encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases and other res...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Antibiotics
Ciprofloxacin
Ulcerative Colitis
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Genes
Inflammation
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Intestines, Small
Treatment Protocols
Ileal Pouches

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