Children with congenital heart disease often undergo heart surgery at a young age. They are at risk for postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS) or death. Milrinone may be used to provide inotropic and vasodilatory support during the immediate postoperative period. This review examines the effectiveness of prophylactic postoperative use of milrinone to prevent LCOS or death in children having undergone surgery for congenital heart disease. Electronic and manual literature searches were performed to identify randomised controlled trials. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science in February 2014 and conducted a top-up search in September 2014 as well as clinical trial registries and reference lists of published studies. We did not apply any language restrictions. Only randomised controlled trials were selected for analysis. We considered studies with newborn infants, infants, toddlers, and children up to 12 years of age. Two review authors independently extracted data according to a pre-defined protocol. We obtained additional information from all study authors. Three of the five included studies compared milrinone versus levosimendan, one study compared milrinone with placebo, and one compared milrinone ve...Continue Reading
Intravenous milrinone following cardiac surgery: I. Effects of bolus infusion followed by variable dose maintenance infusion. The European Milrinone Multicentre Trial Group
A placebo-controlled trial verifying the efficacy of milrinone in weaning high-risk patients from cardiopulmonary bypass
Early revascularization in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. SHOCK Investigators. Should We Emergently Revascularize Occluded Coronaries for Cardiogenic Shock
Serial blood lactate measurements predict early outcome after neonatal repair or palliation for complex congenital heart disease
Usefulness of corticosteroid therapy in decreasing epinephrine requirements in critically ill infants with congenital heart disease
Prophylactic intravenous use of milrinone after cardiac operation in pediatrics (PRIMACORP) study. Prophylactic Intravenous Use of Milrinone After Cardiac Operation in Pediatrics
Efficacy and safety of milrinone in preventing low cardiac output syndrome in infants and children after corrective surgery for congenital heart disease
Inotropes improve right heart function in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis
Milrinone and nitric oxide: combined effect on pulmonary artery pressures after cardiopulmonary bypass in children
In-hospital mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure requiring intravenous vasoactive medications: an analysis from the Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry (ADHERE)
Population pharmacokinetics of milrinone in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome undergoing stage I reconstruction
Comparative hemodynamic effects of vasopressin and norepinephrine after milrinone-induced hypotension in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgical patients
EuroHeart Failure Survey II (EHFS II): a survey on hospitalized acute heart failure patients: description of population
Mechanisms of a reduced cardiac output and the effects of milrinone and levosimendan in a model of infant cardiopulmonary bypass
Effects of low-dose milrinone on weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass and after in patients with mitral stenosis and pulmonary hypertension
Perioperative risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation following cardiac surgery in neonates and young infants.
Nitric oxide and milrinone: combined effect on pulmonary circulation after Fontan-type procedure: a prospective, randomized study
Randomized trial of milrinone versus placebo for prevention of low systemic blood flow in very preterm infants
Nitric oxide in conjunction with milrinone better stabilized pulmonary hemodynamics after Fontan procedure
Off-label use of cardiovascular medications in children hospitalized with congenital and acquired heart disease
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for intraoperative cardiac support in children with congenital heart disease
Prevalence of congenital heart defects in newborns in Germany: Results of the first registration year of the PAN Study (July 2006 to June 2007)
Comparison of the effects of dobutamine and milrinone on hemodynamic parameters and oxygen supply in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with low cardiac output after anesthetic induction
Clinical presentation, management and outcomes in the Acute Heart Failure Global Survey of Standard Treatment (ALARM-HF)
Continuous arterial pressure waveform monitoring in pediatric cardiac transplant, cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension patients
Use of Therapeutic Plasma Exchange during Extracorporeal Life Support in Critically Ill Cardiac Children with Thrombocytopenia-Associated Multi-Organ Failure
Prophylactic levosimendan for the prevention of low cardiac output syndrome and mortality in paediatric patients undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease
Physical compatibility of milrinone 1 mg/mL with select cardiovascular medications during simulated Y-site administration
The Perspective of the Intensivist on Inotropes and Postoperative Care Following Pediatric Heart Surgery: An International Survey and Systematic Review of the Literature
Cardiovascular Supportive Therapies for Neonates With Asphyxia - A Literature Review of Pre-clinical and Clinical Studies
Effect of Prophylactic Levosimendan on All-Cause Mortality in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery-An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Goal-directed perfusion to reduce acute kidney injury after paediatric cardiac surgery (GDP-AKIp): study protocol for a prospective randomised controlled trial.
Cardiovascular Drug Therapy during Interstage After Hybrid Approach: A Single-Center Experience in 51 Newborns with Hypoplastic Left Heart.
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