Prostaglandin E2 directly inhibits the conversion of inducible regulatory T cells through EP2 and EP4 receptors via antagonizing TGF-β signalling.

Immunology
Marie GoeppChengcan Yao

Abstract

Regulatory T (Treg) cells are essential for control of inflammatory processes by suppressing effector T-cell functions. The actions of PGE2 on the development and function of Treg cells, particularly under inflammatory conditions, are debated. In this study, we employed pharmacological and genetic approaches to examine whether PGE2  had a direct action on T cells to modulate de novo differentiation of Treg cells. We found that TGF-β-induced Foxp3 expression and iTreg cell differentiation in vitro is markedly inhibited by PGE2 , which was mediated by the receptors EP2 and EP4. Mechanistically, PGE2 -EP2/EP4 signalling interrupts TGF-β signalling during iTreg differentiation. Moreover, EP4 deficiency in T cells impaired iTreg cell differentiation in vivo. Thus, our results demonstrate that PGE2 negatively regulates iTreg cell differentiation through a direct action on T cells, highlighting the potential for selectively targeting the PGE2 -EP2/EP4 pathway to control T cell-mediated inflammation.

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