Birth and adaptation to extrauterine life involve major shifts in the protein and energy metabolism of the human newborn. These include a shift from a state of continuous supply of nutrients including amino acids from the mother to cyclic periodic oral intake, a change in the redox state of organs, thermogenesis, and a significant change in the mobilization and use of oxidative substrates. The development of safe, stable isotopic tracer methods has allowed the study of protein and amino acid metabolism not only in the healthy newborn but also in those born prematurely and of low birth weight. These studies have identified the unique and quantitative aspects of amino acid/protein metabolism in the neonate, thus contributing to rational nutritional care of these babies. The present review summarizes the contemporary data on some of the significant developments in essential and dispensable amino acids and their relationship to overall protein metabolism. Specifically, the recent data of kinetics of leucine, phenylalanine, glutamine, sulfur amino acid, and threonine and their relation to whole-body protein turnover are presented. Finally, the physiological rationale and the impact of nutrient (amino acids) interventions on the dyna...Continue Reading
Effects of early amino acid administration during total parenteral nutrition on protein metabolism in pre-term infants
Glycerol metabolism and triglyceride-fatty acid cycling in the human newborn: effect of maternal diabetes and intrauterine growth retardation
The effect of amino acid infusion on leg protein turnover assessed by L-[15N]phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]leucine exchange
Glutamine and ornithine-alpha-ketoglutarate but not branched-chain amino acids reduce the loss of muscle glutamine after surgical trauma
Increase in anterior tibialis muscle protein synthesis in healthy man during mixed amino acid infusion: studies of incorporation of [1-13C]leucine
Measurement of L-[1-14C]leucine kinetics in splanchnic and leg tissues in humans. Effect of amino acid infusion
Influence of amino acid administration on whole-body leucine kinetics and resting metabolic rate in postabsorptive normal subjects
Studies on cystathionase activity in rat liver and brain during development. Effects of hormones and amino acids in vivo
Cytosolic and mitochondrial isoenzymes of branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase during development of the rat
Lipid transport in the human newborn. Palmitate and glycerol turnover and the contribution of glycerol to neonatal hepatic glucose output
The conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine in man. Direct measurement by continuous intravenous tracer infusions of L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[1-13C] tyrosine in the postabsorptive state
Whole-body protein turnover in preterm appropriate for gestational age and small for gestational age infants: comparison of [15N]glycine and [1-(13)C]leucine administered simultaneously
Development of methionine synthase, cystathionine-beta-synthase and S-adenosyl-homocysteine hydrolase during gestation in rats
Immediate commencement of amino acid supplementation in preterm infants: effect on serum amino acid concentrations and protein kinetics on the first day of life
Phenylalanine hydroxylase activity in preterm infants: is tyrosine a conditionally essential amino acid?
Rates of urea synthesis in the human newborn: effect of maternal diabetes and small size for gestational age
Intravenous glucose suppresses glucose production but not proteolysis in extremely premature newborns
Phenylalanine conversion to tyrosine: comparative determination with L-[ring-2H5]phenylalanine and L-[1-13C]phenylalanine as tracers in man
Effect of intravenous amino acids on protein metabolism of preterm infants during the first three days of life
Proteolysis and phenylalanine hydroxylation in response to parenteral nutrition in extremely premature and normal newborns
Enteral glutamine supplementation for the very low birthweight infant: plasma amino acid concentrations
Relative kinetics of phenylalanine and leucine in low birth weight infants during nutrient administration
Extremely preterm infants (< 28 weeks) are capable of gluconeogenesis from glycerol on their first day of life
Glycerol carbon contributes to hepatic glucose production during the first eight hours in healthy term infants
Technical and methodologic considerations for performance of indirect calorimetry in ventilated and nonventilated preterm infants
Genetic variants reducing MTR gene expression increase the risk of congenital heart disease in Han Chinese populations
Accelerated growth rate induced by neonatal high-protein milk formula is not supported by increased tissue protein synthesis in low-birth-weight piglets
Establishment and assessment of a new human embryonic stem cell-based biomarker assay for developmental toxicity screening
Safety and efficacy of early parenteral lipid and high-dose amino acid administration to very low birth weight infants
Highest Plasma Phenylalanine Levels in (Very) Premature Infants on Intravenous Feeding; A Need for Concern
Immunometabolism and innate immunity in the context of immunological maturation and respiratory pathogens in young children
Multilayer gold nanoparticle-assisted thermal desorption ambient mass spectrometry for the analysis of small organics
Physiology of the Neonatal Gastrointestinal System Relevant to the Disposition of Orally Administered Medications
Early supplementation of phospholipids and gangliosides affects brain and cognitive development in neonatal piglets.
Longitudinal Changes in Crude Protein and Amino Acids in Human Milk in Chinese Population: A Systematic Review.
Birth weight related essential, non-essential and conditionally essential amino acid blood concentrations in 12,000 breastfed full-term infants perinatally
Longitudinal changes in the bioactive proteins in human milk of the Chinese population: A systematic review.
Biosyntheic transformtions are multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed processes where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms. Simple compounds are modified, converted into other compounds, or joined together to form macromolecules. Discover the latest research on biosynthetic transformations here.