Sep 2, 1999

Protein cross-links: universal isolation and characterization by isotopic derivatization and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry

Analytical Biochemistry
X ChenVernon E Anderson


A general method of unequivocally identifying and obtaining sequence information on cross-linked peptides derived by proteolytic digestion of cross-linked proteins has been developed. The method is based on isotopic labeling of alpha-amino groups with 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Proteins containing covalent cross-link(s) are reductively methylated to convert lysine residues to dimethyl lysine. The methylated protein is partially hydrolyzed and the liberated alpha-amino termini are derivatized with an equimolar mixture of DNFB and [(2)H(3)]DNFB. Dinitrophenyl (DNP)-labeled peptides may be fractionated into mono- and bis-DNP pools by chromatography on phenyl media. The bis-DNP peptides are further separated by reverse-phase HPLC and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The molecular ions of cross-linked peptides are unambiguously identified as 1:2:1 triplets in the mass spectrum resulting from the binomial distribution of isotopic label in the bis-DNP derivative. Sequence information can be elucidated from the unique product ion patterns which are generated from in-source fragmentation at an elevated cone voltage. Analysis of the disulfide cross-linked...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Covalent Interaction
Abnormal Fragmented Structure
Proteolytic Enzyme

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.