Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance and therapeutic options at the turn of the new millennium

Clinical Microbiology and Infection : the Official Publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Narcisa MesarosFrançoise Van Bambeke

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of nosocomial infections. This organism shows a remarkable capacity to resist antibiotics, either intrinsically (because of constitutive expression of beta-lactamases and efflux pumps, combined with low permeability of the outer-membrane) or following acquisition of resistance genes (e.g., genes for beta-lactamases, or enzymes inactivating aminoglycosides or modifying their target), over-expression of efflux pumps, decreased expression of porins, or mutations in quinolone targets. Worryingly, these mechanisms are often present simultaneously, thereby conferring multiresistant phenotypes. Susceptibility testing is therefore crucial in clinical practice. Empirical treatment usually involves combination therapy, selected on the basis of known local epidemiology (usually a beta-lactam plus an aminoglycoside or a fluoroquinolone). However, therapy should be simplified as soon as possible, based on susceptibility data and the patient's clinical evolution. Alternative drugs (e.g., colistin) have proven useful against multiresistant strains, but innovative therapeutic options for the future remain scarce, while attempts to develop vaccines have been unsuccessful to date. Among broad-spectrum anti...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Antibiotics
Infections, Hospital
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas Infections
Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial

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