Pulmonary thromboembolism

Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
R GoggsD L Chan

Abstract

To review the pathophysiology, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatment of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) in small animals. Human and veterinary clinical studies, reviews, texts, and recent research in canine and feline PTE diagnosis and thromboembolic therapeutics. In humans, clinical probability assessment and point-of-care D-dimer-based algorithms are widely used. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography is the gold standard for PTE diagnosis in humans. Echocardiography is increasingly used for bedside assessment of affected patients. In low-risk human patients anticoagulants alone are recommended while patients with cardiogenic shock are treated with thrombolytics followed by anticoagulation. PTE is associated with numerous predisposing conditions causing hypercoagulability, blood flow stasis, or endothelial injury. Identifying at-risk patients is key to diagnosis in small animals. Thromboelastography provides a method for identifying hypercoagulable patients. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography may replace selective pulmonary angiography as the imaging technique of choice for PTE diagnosis. PTE therapy consists of supportive treatment combined with appropriate, individualized thromboembolic pharmacotherapy for acut...Continue Reading

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