Punishment of an extinguishing shock-avoidance response by time-out from positive reinforcement

Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
M R Nigro


Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of punishment by time-out from positive reinforcement on the extinction of discriminated shock-avoidance responding. Subjects were trained initially to bar press for food on an intermittent schedule of reinforcement and, concurrently, to avoid shock at the onset of a warning signal. Experiment I compared avoidance extinction performance under no punishment and when avoidance responding resulted in a 30-sec TO from reinforced appetitive responding. In Exp II, the contingent use of TO punishment was compared with its random, or noncontingent use. The results of both experiments showed that in the absence of punishment, avoidance extinction was characterized by short latencies and nearly 100% avoidance responding. Avoidance responding in extinction was little affected by noncontingent TO punishment. When TO was made contingent upon avoidance responding, however, avoidance latencies immediately increased and the frequency of avoidance responses subsequently decreased to zero.


Apr 1, 1953·Journal of Abnormal Psychology·R L SOLOMONL C WYNNE
Dec 1, 1957·Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology·F R BRUSH
Jan 1, 1961·Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior·C B FERSTER, J B APPEL
Jul 1, 1962·Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior·H S HOFFMAN, M FLESHLER
Jul 1, 1963·Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior·W C HOLZT AYLLON
Jul 1, 1963·Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior·J ZIMMERMAN, C B FERSTER
Sep 1, 1963·Psychological Review·R M CHURCH
Oct 1, 1963·Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior·J ZIMMERMAN, N T BAYDAN
Aug 1, 1958·Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior·M Sidman

Related Concepts

Avoidance Learning
Discrimination Learning
Electroconvulsive Shock
Extinction, Psychological
Psychological Reinforcement

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.

Rh Isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.

Enzyme Evolution

This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Pharmacology of Proteinopathies

This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.

Related Papers

Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Behavior Processes
Yutaka Kosaki, A Dickinson
Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
D W Orme-Johnson, M Yarczower
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved