Apr 4, 2020

Pyrazine ring-based Na+ /H+ exchanger (NHE) inhibitors potently inhibit cancer cell growth in 3D culture, independent of NHE1

Scientific Reports
Michala G RolverStine F Pedersen

Abstract

The Na+/H+ exchanger-1 (NHE1) supports tumour growth, making NHE1 inhibitors of interest in anticancer therapy, yet their molecular effects are incompletely characterized. Here, we demonstrate that widely used pyrazinoylguanidine-type NHE1 inhibitors potently inhibit growth and survival of cancer cell spheroids, in a manner unrelated to NHE1 inhibition. Cancer and non-cancer cells were grown as 3-dimensional (3D) spheroids and treated with pyrazinoylguanidine-type (amiloride, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride (EIPA), 5-(N,N-dimethyl)-amiloride (DMA), and 5-(N,N-hexamethylene)-amiloride (HMA)) or benzoylguanidine-type (eniporide, cariporide) NHE1 inhibitors for 2-7 days, followed by analyses of viability, compound accumulation, and stress- and death-associated signalling. EIPA, DMA and HMA dose-dependently reduced breast cancer spheroid viability while cariporide and eniporide had no effect. Although both compound types inhibited NHE1, the toxic effects were NHE1-independent, as inhibitor-induced viability loss was unaffected by NHE1 CRISPR/Cas9 knockout. EIPA and HMA accumulated extensively in spheroids, and this was associated with marked vacuolization, apparent autophagic arrest, ER stress, mitochondrial- and DNA damage and p...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Inhibition of BMP Signaling Pathway
5-dimethylamiloride
Ethylisopropylamiloride
Cell Death Signaling Process
Knock-out
Cell Survival
Spheroids, Cellular
Vacuolation
NHE1 Antiporter
Genetic Exchange

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