Radial artery cannulation: a comprehensive review of recent anatomic and physiologic investigations

Anesthesia and Analgesia
Marek BrzezinskiMartin J London

Abstract

Consistent anatomic accessibility, ease of cannulation, and a low rate of complications have made the radial artery the preferred site for arterial cannulation. Radial artery catheterization is a relatively safe procedure with an incidence of permanent ischemic complications of 0.09%. Although its anatomy in the forearm and the hand is variable, adequate collateral flow in the event of radial artery thrombosis is present in most patients. Harvesting of the radial artery as a conduit for coronary artery bypass grafting, advances in plastic and reconstructive surgery of the hand, and its use as an entry site for cardiac catheterization has provided new insight into the collateral blood flow to the hand and the impact of radial arterial instrumentation. The Modified Allen's Test has been the most frequently used method to clinically assess adequacy of ulnar artery collateral flow despite the lack of evidence that it can predict ischemic complications in the setting of radial artery occlusion. Doppler ultrasound can be used to evaluate collateral hand perfusion in an effort to stratify risk of potential ischemic injury from cannulation. Limited research has demonstrated a beneficial effect of heparinized flush solutions on arterial...Continue Reading

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