Charged particle beams can offer an improved dose conformation to the target volume as compared with photon radiotherapy, with better sparing of normal tissue structures close to the target. In addition, beams of ions heavier than (4)He exhibit a strong increase of the linear energy transfer in the Bragg peak as compared with the entrance region. These physical and biological properties are much more favorable than in photon radiotherapy. As a consequence, particle therapy with protons and heavy ions has gained increasing interest worldwide, and many clinical centers are considering introducing radiation therapy with charged particles. This contribution summarizes the physical and technical principles of charged particle therapy with protons and heavy ions. It briefly reviews the clinical experience gathered so far with proton therapy and gives a more detailed summary of the recent results in carbon ion therapy of skull base tumors, head and neck tumors, non-small-cell lung cancer, hepatocellular carcinomas, bone and soft-tissue sarcomas, and prostate cancer.
Observations on pulmonary metastases in patients after single doses and multiple fractions of fast neutrons and cobalt-60 gamma rays
Locally challenging osteo- and chondrogenic tumors of the axial skeleton: results of combined proton and photon radiation therapy using three-dimensional treatment planning
Neutron versus photon irradiation for unresectable salivary gland tumors: final report of an RTOG-MRC randomized clinical trial. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group. Medical Research Council
Proton radiation therapy (PRT) for pediatric optic pathway gliomas: comparison with 3D planned conventional photons and a standard photon technique
Optimizing radiotherapy of orbital and paraorbital tumors: intensity-modulated X-ray beams vs. intensity-modulated proton beams
Treatment planning for heavy-ion radiotherapy: calculation and optimization of biologically effective dose
High-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer: early toxicity and biochemical outcome in 772 patients
Radiation therapy for chordoma and chondrosarcoma of the skull base and the cervical spine. Prognostic factors and patterns of failure
Assessment of focal liver reaction by multiphasic CT after stereotactic single-dose radiotherapy of liver tumors
Results of the first prospective study of carbon ion radiotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma with liver cirrhosis
Therapy strategies for locally advanced adenoid cystic carcinomas using modern radiation therapy techniques
Proton radiotherapy for orbital rhabdomyosarcoma: clinical outcome and a dosimetric comparison with photons
Treatment planning with protons for pediatric retinoblastoma, medulloblastoma, and pelvic sarcoma: how do protons compare with other conformal techniques?
Dose and dose averaged LET comparison of ¹H, ⁴He, ⁶Li, ⁸Be, ¹⁰B, ¹²C, ¹⁴N, and ¹⁶O ion beams forming a spread-out Bragg peak
Proton radiography and fluoroscopy of lung tumors: a Monte Carlo study using patient-specific 4DCT phantoms
Four-dimensional radiotherapeutic dose calculation using biomechanical respiratory motion description
Responses of total and quiescent cell populations in solid tumors to carbon ion beam irradiation (290 MeV/u) in vivo
Proteomics and pathway analysis identifies JNK signaling as critical for high linear energy transfer radiation-induced apoptosis in non-small lung cancer cells
Water equivalent thickness values of materials used in beams of protons, helium, carbon and iron ions
A patient-specific planning target volume used in 'plan of the day' adaptation for interfractional motion mitigation
The effect of microdosimetric 12C6+ heavy ion irradiation and Mg2+ on canthaxanthin production in a novel strain of Dietzia natronolimnaea
Evolving Clinical Cancer Radiotherapy: Concerns Regarding Normal Tissue Protection and Quality Assurance
The radiosensitivity of total and quiescent cell populations in solid tumors to 290 MeV/u carbon ion beam irradiation in vivo
Nitric oxide increases the invasion of pancreatic cancer cells via activation of the PI3K-AKT and RhoA pathways after carbon ion irradiation
Comparison of thermoluminescence characteristics in γ-ray and C(5+) ion beam-irradiated LiCaAlF6 :Ce phosphor
Quantification of the relative biological effectiveness for ion beam radiotherapy: direct experimental comparison of proton and carbon ion beams and a novel approach for treatment planning
Calculation of energy deposition, photon and neutron production in proton therapy of thyroid gland using MCNPX
How costly is particle therapy? Cost analysis of external beam radiotherapy with carbon-ions, protons and photons
Induction and rejoining of DNA double strand breaks assessed by H2AX phosphorylation in melanoma cells irradiated with proton and lithium beams
Local control of lung derived tumors by diffusing alpha-emitting atoms released from intratumoral wires loaded with radium-224
Radiobiologic significance of response of intratumor quiescent cells in vivo to accelerated carbon ion beams compared with gamma-rays and reactor neutron beams
Dose and linear energy transfer distributions of primary and secondary particles in carbon ion radiation therapy: A Monte Carlo simulation study in water
Evidence-based radiation oncology: definitive, adjuvant and salvage radiotherapy for non-metastatic prostate cancer
Innovative techniques in radiation therapy: editorial, overview, and crystal ball gaze to the future
The survival of heavy ion-irradiated Bcl-2 overexpressing radioresistant tumor cells and their progeny
Acute Toxicity and Quality of Life in Patients With Prostate Cancer Treated With Protons or Carbon Ions in a Prospective Randomized Phase II Study--The IPI Trial
Heavy charged particle radiobiology: using enhanced biological effectiveness and improved beam focusing to advance cancer therapy
Low-LET proton irradiation of A549 non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cells: dose response and RBE determination
Terminal maturation of megakaryocytes and platelet production by hematopoietic stem cells irradiated with heavy-ion beams
Reirradiation Using Carbon Ions in Patients with Locally Recurrent Rectal Cancer at HIT: First Results
Chained lightning, part I: Exploitation of energy and radiobiological principles for therapeutic purposes
Carbon Ion Radiotherapy: A Review of Clinical Experiences and Preclinical Research, with an Emphasis on DNA Damage/Repair
Optimization of Monte Carlo particle transport parameters and validation of a novel high throughput experimental setup to measure the biological effects of particle beams
The effect of carbon irradiation is associated with greater oxidative stress in mouse intestine and colon relative to γ-rays
Dose to normal tissues outside the radiation therapy patient's treated volume: a review of different radiation therapy techniques
Implementation of the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) Model in Radiation Biology and Experimental Radiation Oncology Research
Heavy ion beam irradiation regulates the mRNA expression in megakaryocytopoiesis from human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells
Relative biological effectiveness in canine osteosarcoma cells irradiated with accelerated charged particles
Intestinal stem cells acquire premature senescence and senescence associated secretory phenotype concurrent with persistent DNA damage after heavy ion radiation in mice
Development of an isocentric rotating chair positioner to treat patients of head and neck cancer at upright seated position with multiple nonplanar fields in a fixed carbon-ion beamline
AAPM TG 158: Measurement and calculation of doses outside the treated volume from external-beam radiation therapy
Clinical and Research Activities at the CATANA Facility of INFN-LNS: From the Conventional Hadrontherapy to the Laser-Driven Approach
Large German Multicenter Experience on the Treatment Outcome of 207 Patients With Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma of the Major Salivary Glands
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