Rapid Diversification and Time Explain Amphibian Richness at Different Scales in the Tropical Andes, Earth's Most Biodiverse Hotspot

The American Naturalist
Carl R HutterJohn J Wiens

Abstract

The Tropical Andes make up Earth's most species-rich biodiversity hotspot for both animals and plants. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary processes underlying this extraordinary richness remain uncertain. Here, we examine the processes that generate high richness in the Tropical Andes relative to other regions in South America and across different elevations within the Andes, using frogs as a model system. We combine distributional data, a newly generated time-calibrated phylogeny for 2,318 frog species, and phylogenetic comparative methods to test the relative importance of diversification rates and colonization times for explaining Andean diversity at different scales. At larger scales (among regions and families), we find that faster diversification rates in Andean clades most likely explain high Andean richness. In contrast, at smaller temporal and spatial scales (within family-level clades within the Andes), diversification rates rarely explain richness patterns. Instead, we show that colonization times are important for shaping elevational richness patterns within the Andes, with more species found in habitats colonized earlier. We suggest that these scale-dependent patterns might apply to many other richness g...Continue Reading

Citations

Aug 14, 2018·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Andreas L S MeyerJohn J Wiens
Mar 19, 2019·The New Phytologist·Nicolai M NürkColin E Hughes
Sep 14, 2019·Science·Carsten RahbekJon Fjeldså
Jun 21, 2019·PloS One·Juan David Carvajal-CastroFernando Vargas-Salinas
Aug 29, 2019·Genes·Katharina C Wollenberg ValeroSebastian Steinfartz
Oct 22, 2017·Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution·Andreas L S Meyer, John J Wiens
Dec 12, 2020·Science·Hélène Morlon
Nov 8, 2017·Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution·Jeffrey W StreicherJohn J Wiens
Apr 3, 2021·Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution·Santiago Montero-MendietaCarles Vilà
Jul 15, 2021·Systematic Biology·Damien EsquerréAdam D Leaché

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