Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) are essential innate immune system cells that are lost from the circulation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals associated with CD4(+) T cell decline and disease progression. pDC depletion is thought to be caused by migration to tissues or cell death, although few studies have addressed this directly. We used precise methods of enumeration and in vivo labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine to track recently divided pDC in blood and tissue compartments of monkeys with acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. We show that pDC are lost from blood and peripheral lymph nodes within 14 days of infection, despite a normal frequency of pDC in bone marrow. Paradoxically, pDC loss masked a highly dynamic response characterized by rapid pDC mobilization into blood and a 10- to 20-fold increase in recruitment to lymph nodes relative to uninfected animals. Within lymph nodes, pDC had increased levels of apoptosis and necrosis, were uniformly activated, and were infected at frequencies similar to CD4(+) T cells. Nevertheless, remaining pDC had essentially normal functional responses to stimulation through Toll-like receptor 7, with half of lymph node pDC producin...Continue Reading
Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsm) infection of cynomolgus monkeys: effects on follicular dendritic cells in lymphoid tissue
Regulation of thymocyte proliferation and survival by deoxynucleosides. Deoxycytidine produced by thymic accessory cells protects thymocytes from deoxyguanosine toxicity and stimulates their spontaneous proliferation
Fas antigen stimulation induces marked apoptosis of T lymphocytes in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals
Gastrointestinal tract as a major site of CD4+ T cell depletion and viral replication in SIV infection
Plasmacytoid monocytes migrate to inflamed lymph nodes and produce large amounts of type I interferon
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are highly susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and release infectious virus
Loss of blood CD11c(+) myeloid and CD11c(-) plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients with HIV-1 infection correlates with HIV-1 RNA virus load.
Decreased interferon-alpha production in HIV-infected patients correlates with numerical and functional deficiencies in circulating type 2 dendritic cell precursors
Early and persistent bone marrow hematopoiesis defect in simian/human immunodeficiency virus-infected macaques despite efficient reduction of viremia by highly active antiretroviral therapy during primary infection
Reduced blood CD123+ (lymphoid) and CD11c+ (myeloid) dendritic cell numbers in primary HIV-1 infection.
Increased expression of the inflammatory chemokine CXC chemokine ligand 9/monokine induced by interferon-gamma in lymphoid tissues of rhesus macaques during simian immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
Persistent decreases in blood plasmacytoid dendritic cell number and function despite effective highly active antiretroviral therapy and increased blood myeloid dendritic cells in HIV-infected individuals
Productive infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is triggered by CD40 ligation
Simian immunodeficiency virus dramatically alters expression of homeostatic chemokines and dendritic cell markers during infection in vivo.
Influence of plasma viremia on defects in number and immunophenotype of blood dendritic cell subsets in human immunodeficiency virus 1-infected individuals
Dysfunction and infection of freshly isolated blood myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in patients infected with HIV-1.
Expression of IFN-gamma induced CXCR3 agonist chemokines and compartmentalization of CXCR3+ cells in the periphery and lymph nodes of rhesus macaques during simian immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Gamma interferon-mediated inflammation is associated with lack of protection from intravaginal simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac239 challenge in simian-human immunodeficiency virus 89.6-immunized rhesus macaques
Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells and concomitantly induces the bystander maturation of myeloid dendritic cells
Evidence for recruitment of plasmacytoid dendritic cell precursors to inflamed lymph nodes through high endothelial venules
Impact of bone marrow hematopoiesis failure on T-cell generation during pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection in macaques.
Low-level HIV infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells: onset of cytopathic effects and cell death after PDC maturation
TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HIV-1-infected patients and its in vitro production by antigen-presenting cells.
Endogenous IFN-alpha production by plasmacytoid dendritic cells exerts an antiviral effect on thymic HIV-1 infection
Differential susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells
Pathogenicity of simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-89.6P and SIVmac is attenuated in cynomolgus macaques and associated with early T-lymphocyte responses
Temporal and anatomic relationship between virus replication and cytokine gene expression after vaginal simian immunodeficiency virus infection
Endocytosis of HIV-1 activates plasmacytoid dendritic cells via Toll-like receptor-viral RNA interactions
Broad cellular immunity with robust memory responses to simian immunodeficiency virus following serial vaccination with adenovirus 5- and 35-based vectors
Attenuation of pathogenic immune responses during infection with human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) by the tetracycline derivative minocycline
Innate immune responses and rapid control of inflammation in African green monkeys treated or not with interferon-alpha during primary SIVagm infection
Massive mobilization of dendritic cells during influenza A virus subtype H5N1 infection of nonhuman primates
Short communication: Plasmacytoid dendritic cells from HIV-1 Elite Controllers maintain a gut-homing phenotype associated with immune activation
Major depletion of plasmacytoid dendritic cells in HIV-2 infection, an attenuated form of HIV disease
Systemic dendritic cell mobilization associated with administration of FLT3 ligand to SIV- and SHIV-infected macaques
Increased monocyte turnover from bone marrow correlates with severity of SIV encephalitis and CD163 levels in plasma
Blood myeloid dendritic cells from HIV-1-infected individuals display a proapoptotic profile characterized by decreased Bcl-2 levels and by caspase-3+ frequencies that are associated with levels of plasma viremia and T cell activation in an exploratory study
Dendritic cell subsets dynamics and cytokine production in SIVmac239-infected Chinese rhesus macaques
Early myeloid dendritic cell dysregulation is predictive of disease progression in simian immunodeficiency virus infection
Comparative transcriptomics of extreme phenotypes of human HIV-1 infection and SIV infection in sooty mangabey and rhesus macaque
Generalized immune activation and innate immune responses in simian immunodeficiency virus infection
Relationships between IL-17(+) subsets, Tregs and pDCs that distinguish among SIV infected elite controllers, low, medium and high viral load rhesus macaques
Kinetics of myeloid dendritic cell trafficking and activation: impact on progressive, nonprogressive and controlled SIV infections
A correlate of HIV-1 control consisting of both innate and adaptive immune parameters best predicts viral load by multivariable analysis in HIV-1 infected viremic controllers and chronically-infected non-controllers
Simian immunodeficiency virus infection potently modulates chemokine networks and immune environments in hilar lymph nodes of cynomolgus macaques
Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) from HIV controllers produce interferon-α and differentiate into functional killer pDCs under HIV activation
Myeloid dendritic cells isolated from tissues of SIV-infected Rhesus macaques promote the induction of regulatory T cells
The role of toll-like receptors in B-cell development and immunopathogenesis of common variable immunodeficiency
Macrophage accumulation in gut mucosa differentiates AIDS from chronic SIV infection in rhesus macaques
SIV infection of rhesus macaques differentially impacts mononuclear phagocyte responses to virus-derived TLR agonists
A divergent myeloid dendritic cell response at virus set-point predicts disease outcome in SIV-infected rhesus macaques
Whole blood stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR)-7/8 and TLR-9 agonists induces interleukin-12p40 expression in plasmacytoid dendritic cells in rhesus macaques but not in humans
In acute pathogenic SIV infection plasmacytoid dendritic cells are depleted from blood and lymph nodes despite mobilization
Multi-functional plasmacytoid dendritic cells redistribute to gut tissues during simian immunodeficiency virus infection
Unraveling the functions of plasmacytoid dendritic cells during viral infections, autoimmunity, and tolerance
Common variable immunodeficiency revisited: normal generation of naturally occurring dendritic cells that respond to Toll-like receptors 7 and 9
Accumulation of functionally immature myeloid dendritic cells in lymph nodes of rhesus macaques with acute pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus infection
Gut-Associated Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Display an Immature Phenotype and Upregulated Granzyme B in Subjects with HIV/AIDS
Effect of chronic morphine administration on circulating dendritic cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques
Cell migration is involved in a variety of physiological and pathological processes such as embryonic development, cancer metastasis, blood vessel formation and remoulding, tissue regeneration, immune surveillance and inflammation. Here is the latest research.
Apoptosis is a specific process that leads to programmed cell death through the activation of an evolutionary conserved intracellular pathway leading to pathognomic cellular changes distinct from cellular necrosis