PMID: 2808984Nov 1, 1989Paper

Rate-modulated cardiac pacing based on transthoracic impedance measurements of minute ventilation: correlation with exercise gas exchange

Journal of the American College of Cardiology
G N KayV J Plumb


The relation of pacing rate to physiologic variables of metabolic demand was examined in 10 consecutive patients with a minute ventilation-sensing, rate-modulating ventricular pacemaker implanted for complete heart block. All patients had paroxysmal (seven patients) or chronic (three patients) atrial fibrillation and were referred for catheter ablation of the atrioventricular junction. Treadmill exercise testing with measurement of expired gas exchange and respiratory flow was performed before ablation and 4 weeks after pacemaker implantation, with the pacemaker programmed to both the fixed-rate VVI and rate-modulating minute ventilation VVIR pacing modes in random sequence. The relation of pacing rate to oxygen consumption (VO2), expired carbon dioxide concentration (VCO2), respiratory quotient, tidal volume, respiratory rate and minute ventilation was determined during exercise in the rate-modulating minute ventilation pacing mode. Pacing rate was highly correlated with minute ventilation (r = 0.89), respiratory quotient (r = 0.89), VCO2 (r = 0.87), tidal volume (r = 0.87), VO2 (r = 0.84) and respiratory rate (r = 0.84). The mean exercise duration increased from 8.3 +/- 2.8 min in the fixed rate pacing mode to 10.2 +/- 3.4 mi...Continue Reading


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